Development of Experimental Model of Feline Microsporum Infection (2023)

Featured Articles (6)

  • research article

    Serum antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in clinical and subclinical canine ehrlichiosis

    Veterinary Research, Volume 115, 2017, pages 301-306

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidant responses and products of oxidative damage analyzed by different assays in clinical and subclinical monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) in dogs. For this purpose, four assays that measure total serum antioxidant capacity (TAC), such as copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), plasma iron reducing capacity (FRAP), trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity using an acidic medium (TEAC) (TEAC)A), and TEAC using horseradish peroxidase (TEACH) used. In addition, serum thiol concentrations were analyzed. Measure reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and ferrous oxidized xylenol orange (FOX) to determine the concentration of free radicals and products of oxidative damage caused by disease. All antioxidant markers were significantly lower in dogs with clinical ehrlichiosis compared to healthy dogs; however, only CUPRAC, FRAP and thiols were significantly lower in subclinical CME compared to healthy dogs. TBARS and FOX showed no significant differences between dogs with CME and healthy dogs; however, significantly increased ROS concentrations were observed in dogs with clinical and subclinical CME compared to healthy dogs. The results showed that CME was in a state of oxidative stress, with significant changes in antioxidant defense markers and free radical concentrations. However, detection of these changes will depend on the detection method used.

  • To date, no molecular typing studies have been conducted to determine thisSporotrichumSpecies endemic to Abancay, an area of ​​high sporotrichosis in Peru. Six clinical isolates identifiedSporothrix schenckiiFrom the complex in Abancay, Peru, we used PCR sequencing of the calmodulin gene and performed phylogenetic analyzes with this and other sequences from GenBank. All clinical isolates were identified asStreptococcus schenk(limitedPhylogenetic analysis showed that six clinical isolates from Abancay, Peru clustered in one clade, along with sequences from Costa Rica, Iran, South Africa, and four others from Peru. These findings reveal the existence ofStreptococcus schenk(limited) in Abancay, Peru.

  • research article

    Early detection of recurrent interstitial cyst of the primary iris by ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Journal of the American Academy of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, deel 18, nr. 2, 2014, blz. 184-186

    Primary iridostromal cysts are characterized by a smooth, round, translucent mass in the anterior chamber of the eye. In young children it tends to grow rapidly and may be mistaken for an intraocular malignancy. Difficult to manage, recurrent. We report 2 cases of primary interstitial iris cysts where recurrence was detected relatively early using ultrasound biomicroscopy and successfully treated by iridectomy.

  • research article

    Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples

    Journal of Medical Mycology, Volume 25, Issue 1, 2015, pp. e25-e30

    The hemolytic activity of several pathogenic fungi has recently been reported, such asAspergillus,Candida,Trichophyton,PenicilliumInFusariumSeveral mycolysins have been proposed as virulence factors based on many mechanistic and characterization studies. Lysis of red blood cells by hemolysin leads to the release of iron, an important growth factor for microorganisms, especially during infection. The need for iron for mold growth is necessary for metabolic processes and is a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with the ability to lyse erythrocytes has also been proposed as a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemolytic activity of dermatophyte species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples from the patient were examined by direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultured on mycobacterial agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. To determine the hemolytic activity of dermatophytes, they were subcultured on Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood and grown aerobically at 25°C for 7-14 days. Media showing hemolysis were further incubated at 37°C for 1-5 days to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophyte strains were isolated from clinical specimens and identified as six different species: 43 (65.1%)Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10,7%)Trichophyton mentagrophyten, 5 (7,6%)small trace dog, 5 (7,6%)Trichophyton, 4 (6,0%)Epidermophyton flocculusin 2 (3.0%)Trichophyton violaceum.21T. roodstrains showing incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nineT. roodStrains showed complete (beta) hemolysis while 13 strains showed no hemolysisT. rooddeformation. FourTrichophyton mentagrophytenstrain with complete hemolysis and threeT. cutThe strain showed incomplete haemolysis. However,dog symbol,E. floccosumInpansiesSpecies have no hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity is evident in dermatophytes and may play an important role as a virulence factor. The hemolysin produced may play an important role in the balance between the host's cellular immunity and the ability of the fungus to dampen the immune response.

    The hemolytic activity of several pathogenic fungi has recently been reported, vizAspergillus,Candida,Trichophyton,Penicilliumto waitFusarium.Based on numerous mechanistic and process characterization studies, several hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysin lyses red blood cells to release iron, which is an important factor for microorganisms, especially during infection. Iron in mold growth is necessary for metabolic processes, where it acts as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. The hemolysin, which has the ability to lyse red blood cells, also provides a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. In this article, the aim was to study the hemolytic activity of dermatophyte species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples from patients were examined microscopically using potassium hydroxide and cultured on mycobacterial agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. To measure hemolytic activity, dermatophytes were subcultured on Columbia 5% sheep blood agar and incubated aerobically at 25°C for 7 to 14 days. Media showing hemolysis were further incubated at 37°C for 1-5 days to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophyte strains were isolated from clinical specimens and identified as six different species: 43 (65.1%)Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10,7%)Trichophyton mentagrophyten, 5 (7,6%)small trace dog, 5 (7,6%)Trichophyton, 4 (6,0%)Epidermophyton flocculusWait 2 (3.0%)Trichophyton violaceum.twenty-one stubT. roodShows incomplete hemolysis (alpha) and nine strainsT. roodShows complete hemolysis (β), while 13 strains lack hemolysisT. rood.four plantsTrichophyton mentagrophytenwith complete hemolysis and three strainsT. cutShown as incomplete haemolysis. Kindsdog symbol,E. floccosumto waitpansiesNo hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity is evident in dermatophytosis and may play an important role as a virulence factor. The hemolysin produced could play an important role in the balance between cellular autoimmunity and the ability of the fungus to reduce the immune response.

  • research article

    Sporotrichum Chilean sp. November (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne human sporotrichose agent with mild pathogenic potential in mammals

    Fungal Biology, Volume 120, Number 2, 2016, Pages 246-264

    The combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphology and ecology enables great advances in understanding taxonomySporotrichumSpecies, including members with different lifestyles, such as saprophytes, human and animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/2+5.8s sequence cleavageSporotrichumThe genus is in two well-defined groups with different ecologies. embedded speciesSporothrix schenckiiThe complex is a common pathogen of sporotrichosis in humans and animals, some of which are responsible for a large number of sporotrichosis and zoonotic diseases in warm temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species co-evolved with decaying wood and soil and were rarely found to cause disease in humans. We propose to create a new taxon,Sporotrichum chiliensissp. November to house strains collected from onychomycosis clinical cases and from environmental sources in Chile. Polygenic analysis based on ITS1/2+5.8s region, β-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α showedS. chilensisand lidSporothrix pallidumcomplex, the closest taxon isSporotrichum Mexicani, a rare soil-dwelling species that is not pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as the primary barcode marker, while each protein-coding locus allows easy identification of species boundaries, providing enough information for species identification. A disseminated model of sporotrichosis in mice shows mild pathogenic potential with lung invasion. althoughS. chilensisRather than being a major pathogen, an accidental infection can impact immune-suppressed populations. With the introduction of several species with similar transmission routes but different virulence, identification ofSporotrichumSpecies level proxy is mandatory.

  • research article

    Molecular characterization and antifungal susceptibility profiles of dermatophytes isolated from scalp dermatophyte carriers in Arak, central Iran

    Journal of Medical Mycology, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2019, pp. 19-23

    Asymptomatic carriage is the state of a dermatophyte culture positive in the absence of signs and symptoms of tinea capitis. Carriers are sources of dermatophytes that can transmit the fungus to others. The aim of this study was to evaluate asymptomatic carriage of scalp dermatophytes in primary school students in the city of Arak.

    Antiseptic hairbrush sampling of the scalp was performed on 3174 students. Inoculate the brush onto Mycosel agar plates. Identification of dermatophyte isolates by PCR-RFLP using Mval enzyme. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 protocol. The antifungal agents used were griseofulvin (GRZ), terbinafine (TER), itraconazole (ITC), and fluconazole (FLU).

    A total of 3174 school-aged children were screened, and 15 cases (0.48%) were positive for dermatophyte culture. Asymptomatic carriers were 11 (73.3%) boys and 4 (26.7%) girls, with an age range of 7-12 years.Trichophyton(80%),T. interdigital(13.3%) inT. rood(6.7%) were the most common isolated dermatophytes. Based on the antifungal susceptibility results obtained, terbinafine had the lowest MIC values ​​and fluconazole had the highest MIC values ​​of all dermatophyte isolates tested.

    In the study,T. cutTerbinafine was the most common strain isolated from asymptomatic carriers, and of the four antifungal agents tested, terbinafine had the strongest in vitro antifungal activity against all isolates. Identifying and treating carriers of dermatophytes can prevent the spread of tinea capitis in the community.

Copyright © 1994 Published by Elsevier B.V.


What is the microscopic appearance of Microsporum? ›

Microscopic morphology

Microsporum canis reproduces asexually by forming macroconidia that are asymmetrical, spherically shaped and have cell walls that are thick and coarsely roughened.

What are the identifying features of Microsporum? ›

Culture of Microsporum canis. Morphological description: Colonies are flat, spreading, white to cream-coloured, with a dense cottony surface which may show some radial grooves. Colonies usually have a bright golden yellow to brownish yellow reverse pigment, but non-pigmented strains may also occur.

What is the structure of Microsporum? ›

Microsporum is a genus of fungi that causes tinea capitis, tinea corporis, ringworm, and other dermatophytoses (fungal infections of the skin). Microsporum forms both macroconidia (large asexual reproductive structures) and microconidia (smaller asexual reproductive structures) on short conidiophores.

What is Microsporum infection in cats? ›

Overview: Dermatophytosis, usually caused by Microsporum canis, is the most common fungal infection in cats worldwide, and one of the most important infectious skin diseases in this species. Many adult cats are asymptomatic carriers.

What is microscopic morphology of Microsporum Ferrugineum? ›

Microscopic morphology

Microsporum ferrugineum produces sterile, septate hyphae which are usually deformed and irregularly branched, having a bamboo-like appearance. Long, straight, thick-walled, hypersegmented hyphae are often present. This Microsporum spp. does not produce macro- and microconidia.

What are the microscopic characteristics of Microsporum canis? ›

Microsporum canis is part of a family of fungi known as dermatophytes. Microscopically, it has multi- celled spores known as macroconidia with rough thick walls. Macroconidia are characteristically spindle shaped with 5-15 cells.

How do you diagnose Microsporum? ›

Diagnosis is via Wood's lamp, skin, and hair cultures. Microscopic examination of hairs taken from the periphery of the lesion and prepared with 10% KOH solution is a quick diagnostic test that may be done on site.

How does Microsporum grow? ›

M. canis is known to mainly reproduce asexually through a mitotic process, and the propagules that originate from the asexual reproduction (conidia) vary according to the context in which the fungus is located.

What is the macroscopic appearance of Microsporum gypseum? ›

Macroscopic appearance of culture of Microsporum gypseum on Dermasel agar base supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide: a) flat, granular, with a deep cream to pale cinnamon-colored surface and b) yellow brown reverse pigment.

What is the microscopic appearance of Microsporum nanum? ›

Microscopically, numerous "small, pear-shaped, thick- walled, finely verrucose or occasionally smooth two- or three-celled macronidia" were formed. These spores had truncate bases and ranged in size from 12-18 X 4-7.5 p.. Microconidia were present in low num- bers in the Sabouraud agar cultures.

Where does Microsporum grow? ›

It belongs to genus Microsporum, family Arthrodermataceae, order Onygenales, class Eurotiomycetes, and division Ascomycota. The fungus has a worldwide distribution, particularly in humid, warm climates like Europe, the eastern Mediterranean, and South America.

Where does Microsporum cause infection in? ›

Tinea corporis (B35. 6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans.

What is the best antifungal for Microsporum? ›

Miconazole shampoos are most effective when combined with chlorhexidine (see Table 1) [2,24]. Clotrimazole, miconazole, and enilconazole are also recommended for topical treatment of M. canis infections in animals, but not as sole therapy [2].

What is the name of the common infection disease caused by Microsporum? ›

Approximately 40 different species of fungi can cause ringworm; the scientific names for the types of fungi that cause ringworm are Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton.

What infections are caused by Microsporum? ›

Microsporum canis (M. canis) is a pathogenic, highly contagious and asexual fungus of the phylum Ascomycota. M. canis causes infections of the scalp and body sites, creating inflammatory lesions associated with hair loss.

What are the two basic morphological types of microscopic fungi? ›

Fungi can be divided into two basic morphological forms, yeasts and hyphae.

What is the size of Microsporum hyphae? ›

The hyphae or appendages are of three kinds in the fungi, the first being straight, slender, smooth walled hyphae that can grow up to 250 μm long; they taper at 2.5–4.0 μm in diameter at the base but close to about 1.5-2 μm.

What is the mode of transmission of Microsporum? ›

Transmission occurs via direct contact with an infected animal or person, or by contact with infected hair and scale on fomites or in the environment. T. mentagrophytes and M.

What is the life cycle of Microsporum? ›

The life cycle of Microsporidia consists of 2 distinct stages which are merogony or the proliferating stage, and sporogony or infecting or mature stage. Briefly, the life cycle of Microsporidia are: Spores enter the host by ingestion and or inhalation.

What is the description of Microsporum? ›

1. capitalized : a genus of fungi of the family Moniliaceae producing both small, nearly oval single-celled spores and large spindle-shaped multicellular spores with a usually rough outer wall and including several that cause ringworm, tinea capitis, and tinea corporis.

What are fungal microscopic characteristics? ›

Typical hyphal features in higher fungi seen with the ordinary light microscope include cell walls, cross walls or septa, vacuoles, various inclusions such as fat globules and crystals, and occasionally, nuclei. Most fungal nuclei are very small and special stains are often required for observation.

What is the incubation period for Microsporum? ›

Infection occurs by contact with viable spores from infected hair on infected animals or people, on contaminated fomites (especially tack and grooming equipment), and in contaminated soil. The incubation period is 1–4 wk.

What does Microsporum affect mostly? ›

The genus Microsporum is distributed worldwide and M. canis is the most common zoophillic species to affect humans, primarily causing tinea capitis in children. Domestic dogs and cats are usually the reservoir of infection and are often healthy carriers of Microsporum.

What is the difference between Microsporum and Trichophyton? ›

Trichophyton rubrum is the most common anthropophilic dermatophyte worldwide and its typical infection areas include skin of hands or feet and nail plate. In turn, Microsporum canis is a zoophilic pathogen, and mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans.

How do you treat Microsporum species? ›

Topical antifungal agents

In vitro, econazole inhibits most strains of Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton, C. albicans, and M. furfur. Topical econazole is effective in the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by dermatophytes, as well as tinea versicolor caused by M.

At what temperature does Microsporum canis grow? ›

Microsporum canis has shown maximum growth at 30°C and high rate of sporulation was observed in a temperature range of 25°C to 35°C.

What is the habitat of Microsporum? ›

Microsporum is a filamentous keratinophilic fungus included in the group of dermatophytes. While the natural habitat of some of the Microsporum spp. is soil (the geophilic species), others primarily affect various animals (the zoophilic species) or human (the anthropophilic species).

What is the morphology of Microsporum nanum? ›

Microsporum nanum is a mesophile and grows moderately rapid on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar. Its macroconidia are ovoid in shape and, unlike those of most other species of Microsporum, normally consist of no more than three cells. Rare to moderate numbers of rough-walled microconidia can also be found in the colony.

What is the morphology of Microsporum nanum colony? ›

Macroscopic morphology

Microsporum nanum grows moderately rapidly and the diameter of the colony reaches 1 to 3 cm following incubation at 25°C for 7 days on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The texture is powdery, cottony, thin, spreading, velvety or flat and often has some radial, shallow furrows.

Does Microsporum affect hair? ›

[1] It is caused primarily by the dermatophyte species Microsporum and Trichophyton. The fungi can penetrate the hair follicle outer root sheath and ultimately may invade the hair shaft.

Does Microsporum cause nail infection? ›

Nail infections are mainly caused by T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophytes (1a, 19, 20, 25, 27, 29), in contrast to hair and skin infections, which may be caused by other dermatophyte species, including Microsporum spp.

What is the most aggressive ringworm treatment? ›

Terbinafine. Terbinafine (Lamisil) comes in creams, sprays, and gels and can treat athlete's foot, jock itch, and other ringworm infections on the skin. The CDC says terbinafine seems to be the most effective treatment for tinea pedis.

What shampoo kills ringworm? ›

Antifungal shampoo

A shampoo such as Nizoral or Head and Shoulders Intensive kills ringworm spores. Lather and leave it on your child's scalp for 10Â minutes before rinsing. Use the antifungal shampoo twice a week for 1 month. On other days, use a regular shampoo.

What is the microscopic appearance of Microsporum Audouinii? ›

The colonies are flat, dense and cottony in texture with a greyish-white to reddish brown hue. On Potato Dextrose agar, colonies are white with a silky texture and a peach-coloured underside. Microsporum audouinii can be differentiated from non-sporulating strains of the similar M. canis by culture on autoclaved rice.

What is the macroscopic appearance of Trichophyton? ›

The genus Trichophyton is characterised morphologically by the development of both smooth-walled macro- and microconidia. Macroconidia are mostly borne laterally directly on the hyphae or on short pedicels, and are thin- or thick-walled, clavate to fusiform, and range from 4-8 x 8-50 μm in size.

What are the microscopic features of Microsporum gypseum? ›

Microscopic morphology

Macroconidia are abundant, fusiform and symmetrical in shape with rounded ends. The walls of macroconidia are thin and rough and they contain 3-6 cells. Microconidia are moderately numerous in number, club-shaped and located along the hyphae.

How is Microsporum diagnosed? ›

Diagnosis requires microscopic examination of hair and skin samples and dermatophyte culture. For topical therapy, 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo, or 0.2% enilconazole rinse is effective. Topical treatment removes spores from hair shafts, and systemic treatment acts at hair follicles.

What is the shape of Microsporum canis? ›

Microscopically, M. canis reproduces by means of two conidial form multi-celled macroconidia and single-celled microconidia. The asexual propagation of the fungus is produced through forming asymmetrical, spherically shaped macroconidia.

What is the fluorescence of Microsporum audouinii? ›

Formerly, its most common use was in screening patients with alopecia for tinea capitis, as the most common causative organisms, Microsporum audouinii and other Microsporum species, were easily identified by blue-green fluorescence under Wood light.

What are the characteristics that you will observe of fungi macroscopically? ›

The macroscopic features of common mold that are multicellular fungi may include colonial form by its cottony appearance, surface color, and presence of pigments. The microscopic features include hyphae and mycelium forming a thallus; hyphae can be categorized into septate and aseptate hyphae.

What are three types of macroscopic fungi? ›

Macroscopic fungi such as morels, mushrooms, puffballs, and the cultivated agarics available in grocery stores represent only a small fraction of the diversity in the kingdom Fungi.


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