small trace dogis a zoonotic dermatophyte that causes most cases of ringworm in dogs and cats (Weitzman and Summerbell, 1995; Chermette et al., 2008; Mignon and Monod, 2011). Since dermatophytes invade the tough keratinized skin structure, much effort has been devoted to characterizing secreted proteases as putative fungal virulence factors (Monod, 2008; Vermout et al., 2008), but few of them have been proven to be a causative agent of skin diseasesdog symbol(Descamps et al., 2002; Baldo et al., 2010; Bagut et al., 2012). In contrast, little attention has been paid to studying the host immune response to viruses.dog symbolEspecially other dermatophytes (Almeida, 2008, Mignon et al., 2008). Although dermatophytes reside on the surface of the skin, they can elicit an adaptive immune response. Cellular responses associated with delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) are known to correlate with clinical recovery and protection against reinfection (Calderon, 1989; Almeida, 2008; Mignon et al., 2008). The initial post-infection immunological events remain to be elucidated, including the role of innate immunity in mediating host-specific immune responses. The first epidermal cells encountered by dermatophytes during infection are keratinocytes, and a broad spectrum of cytokines can be produced when exposed to these fungi (Nakamura et al., 2002; Shiraki et al., 2006; Tani et al., 2007), including polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemoattractants for IL-8 and proinflammatory TNFα (Nakamura et al., 2002). The first leukocytes to be recruited to sites of dermatophytosis infection are PMNs (Hay et al., 1988). Together with macrophages, these cells are known to be responsible for the elimination of dermatophytes (Calderon and Hay, 1987; Heddergott et al., 2012). Their potential role in inducing a specific immune response in dermatophytosis remains unknown, but can be reasonably assumed. Indeed, in other fungal and microbial infections, PMNs can initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses by interacting with dendritic cells and producing specific cytokines (Schaller et al., 2004; Megiovanni et al., 2006; Charmoy et al. et al., 2010) . The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of feline PMN in the early stagesdog symbolInfect. To this end, PMN was combined with variousdog symbolPMN-produced components and levels of specific cytokines were assessed.
Isolation of feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils
Cat blood is provided in good faith by veterinarians through blood donations conducted with the consent of the cat owner. The cats sampled were tame shorthair intact male or female young adult cats with no medical history. Clinical examination revealed no abnormalities. The cat tested negative for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection using the WITNESS® FeLV-FIV test (Prodivet, Eynatten, Belgium). Perform a fungal culture
PMNs produce TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 after exposure todog symbolArthrospores
The amount of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFNγ secreted by PMNs co-cultured with Arthrospores was assessed by capture ELISA. Stimulated PMNs produced significantly more TNFα (2.5-fold), IL-1β (8-fold) and IL-8 (25-fold) in culture supernatants compared to unstimulated PMNs, while IFNγ secretion was not affected. Stimulation Effects (Fig. 1) Cytokine responses assessed by ELISA were actually induced by arthrospores and not by potential endotoxin (LPS) contamination. Basically cytokines
The results obtained by ELISA showed that the response todog symbolUpon stimulation with live arthrospores, feline neutrophils secrete TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8, three proinflammatory cytokines. It has been proposed that PMNs play a protective role in other fungal infections by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. in ain vitroIn an oral candidiasis model, the addition of human PMNs to the epithelium induced the production of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-8 (Schaller et al., 2004). commentParacoccidioides
Conflict of Interest Statement
Not a single one.
This research was funded by3.4558.10 299vanResearch Funding Medical Sciences (FRSM).Yes. Yes and L.C. are scholarship recipients from FRIA (Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture, 1000 Brussels, Belgium). ETB is a recipient of research grantsUniversity of ReunichiThe authors thank dr. L. Massart for the statistical analysis.
Oxidative stress response in rats experimentally infected with Sporothrix schenckii
2017, Microbial pathogenesis
The current work suggests that rats affected by sporotrichosis may develop oxidative stress, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. Lipid peroxidation directly influences the pathogenesis of parasitic and fungal diseases [15,16], as well as the stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines during fungal infections [17,18]. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation in S. schenckii infection may increase proinflammatory cytokines, leading to membrane damage through the Fenton reaction, as observed in dogs with dermatophytosis .
The aim of this study was to assess whether oxidative stress occurs in experimentally infected ratsSporotrichum schenckii,and its possible impact on the pathogenesis of diseases. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: group A (uninfected, n=18) and group B (infectedStreptococcus schenk,n = 21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). Six rats in group A and seven rats in group B were bled at each sampling time. Measure TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples to assess lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidant levels, were validated in whole blood. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were measured, indicating that these inflammatory mediators had higher levels in infected rats (P<0.001). Rats with sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p<0.01) TBARS levels at 40 days post-infection compared to uninfected animals, the number of days increased significantly (p<0.01) and SOD activity increased by day 40 after infection (p<0.01). Infected rats had enlarged testes, granulomas in the testicular sac, granulomas in the liver, and follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. All tissues (testis, spleen and liver) showed inflammation associated with many fungal structures. These results suggest that the intense inflammatory response (serum and tissue) in sporotrichosis is a possible mechanism of redox imbalance and thus oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats.
Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of Microsporum Canis Secreted Components with Monophosphoryl Lipid A Adjuvant in a Guinea Pig Vaccine Study
2015, Veterinary Microbiology
A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mycoplasma canis SC induced proinflammatory cytokine production in feline PMNs (Cambier et al., 2013) represented an attractive antigen to test in vaccine studies. These components were tested for their ability to elicit a DTH response in immunized guinea pigs, i.e. spontaneous recovery from experimental infection with M. canis.
small trace dogis the most common dermatophyte in pets and is of zoonotic concern, but there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent dermatophytosis. The aim of this work was to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the secretory component (SC).dog symbolIn guinea pig vaccine studies as an experimental model, it was supplemented with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). Animals were inoculated with SC in MPLA adjuvant, MPLA adjuvant alone or PBS 3 times every other week up to 42 days prior to inoculationdog symbolInfect. Weekly monitoring of the development of dermatophytosis symptoms and blinded assessment of dermatophytosis persistence. Antibody responses to SCs and levels of interferon (IFN) γ and interleukin 4 expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed during the study or at the end of the study, respectively. Animals receiving MPLA had significantly lower clinical scores than animals receiving PBS. However, no significant difference was observed between guinea pigs vaccinated SC vaccinated with MPLA adjuvant and those receiving MPLA alone. The results also showed that vaccination induced a strong antibody response against SC and an increase in IFNγ mRNA levels. Our results indicate that the MPLA adjuvant used in this vaccine study is self-inducingdog symbolInfect. Although they elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity in guinea pigs, SCs did not confer protection under the current experimental conditions.
Microspore patch isolated from Ailuropoda melanoleuca induces inflammation and activates Th17 adaptive immune responses
2022, International Journal of Molecular Sciences
2021, dermatophytes and dermatophytosis
2020, Frontiers in Immunology
Evening commuting with cars and public transport: duality consequences and user equilibrium for merging morning and evening rush hours
Transport Research Part B: Methodology, Volume 57, 2013, pages 286-299
This article has been extendedVickery's (1969)Commuting problems for commuters who want to pass car and public transport bottlenecks with limited road capacity. In addition to this more general framework that considers both modes of transport, this paper also focuses on the evening rush hour, the time when commuters return home from work. Commuters choose which mode of transport to use and when to travel to minimize the overall costs of their own journey, including queue delays and fines for deviating from their preferred commute schedule. The user equilibrium for morning and evening isolated commuting shows asymmetry because the morning schedule is the difference between the departure curve and the desired curve, while the evening schedule is the difference between the arrival curve and the desired curve. The results show that due to the elimination of queue delays, the optimal arrival curve is equal to the departure curve and that the morning and evening rush hour system is optimally symmetrical.
The newspaper then considers the morning and evening rush hours together as a single-mode bottleneck (all cars), with the same travelers sharing the same expected time. A timetable penalty function for positively determined morning departures and evening arrivals with specific properties shows that there is a user equilibrium in which commuters travel in the same order during the two peak periods. The results are used to illustrate user equilibriums in two cases: (i) commuters have uncorrelated morning and evening schedule preferences, and (ii) commuters must work fixed shifts but have flexibility in when to start. Finally, consider the special case of the car and public transport: commuters have the same desire during the morning and evening rush hours. Commuters should use the same pattern in both directions, and a full user balance solution reveals the number of commuters using cars and public transport and the time period between each peak in public transport use.
Optimal clearance of Sporothrix schenckii requires an intact Th17 response in a mouse model of systemic infection
Immunobiology, Volume 220, Issue 8, 2015, Pages 985-992
In recent years, the discovery of Th17 cells, as well as many other subsets of Th cells, has expanded the Th1/Th2 paradigm that has existed since Mosmann in 1986. Production of IL-17A (IL-17) and IL-17A ( IL-17), defined by the characteristic expression of the transcription factors retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), Th17 cells are potent inducers of tissue inflammation and have a well-established ability to combat extracellular bacteria and fungi. Nevertheless, the interest in their research stems from the central role they play in the development and maintenance of important chronic inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, so they promise new anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, the identification of opportunistic pathogens whose clearance depends on Th17 responses has enormous preventive implications. As first shown here, this works forSporothrix schenckii, a thermodimorphic fungus and causative agent of sporotrichosis. Our results showed that both Th17 and Th1/Th17 were mixed cellsStreptococcus schenkSystemic infection of mice, which also resulted in increased production of IL-17 and IL-22. Moreover, by using an antibody-mediated IL-23 depletion model, we further demonstrate that optimal fungal clearance, but not survival, depends on an intact Th17 response.
Brucella ovis without species-specific putative ATP-binding cassette transporter is attenuated but immunogenic in rams
Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 167, Issues 3-4, 2013, Pages 546-553
ovine brucellosis caused bybrussels sproutsConsidered one of the most important reproductive diseases of rams worldwide. This study aimed to characterize the kinetics of Δ infectionABCAB sheepMutant strains in rams. Twelve 1-year-old crossbred rams were used. Use 2 ml with 1.2 × 109CFU/mlB. SheepStrain ATCC25840 (wild-type) was inoculated intraprepuceally at 1.2 × 10610CFU/ml of the same strain. The other six rams were challenged with an equal amount of CFU of mutant strain AABCAB sheepby the same route. Serum samples for serology and semen and urine samples for bacterial culture and PCR were collected weekly for 24 weeks. Twenty-four weeks after infection, tissue samples were collected for bacterial culture and PCR. All rams were inoculated with wild type or AabcABThe strain seroconverted 4 weeks after infection and remained positive until 16 weeks after infection. PCR and bacteriology showed that only rams inoculated with the wild-type strain excreted the microorganisms in semen and urine. Ram lymphocytes inoculated with wild-type or AABCAB sheephave a significantly higher diffusion responseB. SheepAntigen compared to unstimulated controls. Histobacteriology and PCR testingB. SheepOf all rams challenged with the wild-type strain, only one was ΔabcAB- Infected rams have positive iliac lymph node samples by PCR.
Expression of antiviral cytokines in kidney cells of Crandell-Reese cats pretreated with Korean red ginseng extract or ginsenoside
Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 70, 2014, pages 19-25
The antiviral activity and mechanism of protection of Korean red ginseng (KRG) are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of KRG extract and ginsenosides against feline calicivirus (FCV), a human norovirus surrogate. CRFK cells pretreated with 10 μg/ml KRG extract or purified ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1 for 48 h were inoculated with FCV. Examine the expression of antiviral cytokines in RNA extracted from each treatment group, including interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-β (IFN-β), interferon-ω (IFN-ω), Mx and shorter isoforms of zinc finger antiviral proteins ( ZAPS) by relatively real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the FCV-challenged group pretreated with KRG extract or ginsenoside, mRNA expressions of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ω, Mx and ZAPS were significantly induced and higher than those in the group pretreated with FCV alone. had been treated. Mx protein expression was confirmed by western blotting of CRFK cells pretreated with ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1. Induction of antiviral cytokines contributes to reduction of viral titers in CRFK cells pretreated with KRG extract and purified ginsenosides. In future studies, KRG's antiviral protection mechanism should be demonstrated using other viruses, such as human norovirus.
Clonal lineages associated with Staphylococcus aureus in animals and humans and high incidence of new lineages of Staphylococcus pseudointermediates in Spanish kennels: Dominance of Staphylococcus aureus ST398
Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 166, Issues 3-4, 2013, Pages 580-589
methicillin sensitiveStaphylococcus aureus(MSSA) onePseudostaphylococcus intermedia(MSSP) is increasingly concerned with tracking the evolution of emerging methicillin-resistant strains in animals and humans. We focused on the characterization of methicillin-susceptible coagulase-positive staphylococci (MSCoPS) found from nasal samples of 98 healthy kennel dogs. Spacers are made ofwarm spring,Agriculture, MLST and SmaI/ApaI-PFGE. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles were studied. The presence of human-associated immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes was analyzed in MSSA. 24 MSSAs, 16 MSSPs and 1 MSStaphylococcus stutzerisubspeciescottage cheese sugarto get. Thirteenwarm springtype and 12 sequence types (ST) were detected in MSSA, of which ST398 predominated (7/24, 29.2%). MSSA isolates were present in 6 clonal complexes (number of isolates): CC5 (8), CC398 (7), CC88 (4), CC45 (2), CC133 (1), and CC22 (1), and a single clone. High clonal diversity was observed in MSSP and 14 STs were detected (of which 10 were new). Twelve (50%) MSSA and 12 (75%) MSSP isolates showed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, with penicillin resistance low in MSSA (five isolates) and tetracycline resistance high in MSSP (9 strains). MSSA separation of ST398, ST133, ST1 and ST2329[new]Sensitive to all antimicrobials and the only one that is deficientscn,chipsetone/ofdingIEC Gen. A wide diversity of enterotoxin genes was detected in non-ST398/ST133 MSSA isolates. MSSP showed a more uniform virulence gene profile. Our results show that dogs canStaphylococcus aureusCarriers not only of typical human-related lines, but also of lines that are common in other animal species. Continued monitoring of CoPS in dogs is needed to reveal their role in the spread of clones adapted to other animal species.
Macrophage expression of Dectin-1 in mouse model of systemic infection by Sporothrix schenckii and related antifungal mechanism
Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 110, 2017, pages 78-84
Little information is available on the role of Dectin-1 in sporotrichosis. Therefore, our aim was to assess Dectin-1 expression in macrophages and the activation of some related antifungal mechanisms.Sporothrix schenckii strictinfection as the first attempt to elucidate the role of this receptor in sporotrichosis. Intraperitoneal infection of Balb/c miceSchenk vis strictYeast ATCC 16345 and were euthanized on days 5, 10 and 15 post-infection to assess the following parameters: fungal burden in the spleen, Dectin-1 expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages, as well as IL-1β, TNF- a and IL-10livesecreted by the same cells. are peritoneal macrophagesliveChallenge with the alkali-insoluble fraction (F1) extracted fromStreptococcus schenkCell wall, commercially available purified β-1,3-glucan or completely heat inactivatedStreptococcus schenkYeast (HKss). In addition, a Dectin-1 antibody-mediated blocking assay was performed on day 10 post-infection to assess the involvement of this receptor in cytokine secretion. Our results showed that Dectin-1 expression in peritoneal macrophages was increased at day 10 and 15 post-infection along with increased NO production,liveSecretion of IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β. Antibody-mediated blockade of Dectin-1 inhibited cytokine production in both infected and uninfected mice, mainly after β-1,3-glucan stimulation. Our results suggest a role for Dectin-1 in eliciting immune responses duringStreptococcus schenkInfect.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Outside the bone marrow, neutrophil production is also regulated by a cytokine network that involves interleukin (IL)-23 produced by phagocytes and IL-17 produced by T lymphocytes.Do neutrophils make cytokines? ›
It is evident that neutrophils express/produce cytokines belonging to various families, mostly including pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, immunoregulatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, and angiogenic/fibrogenic factors.What causes proinflammatory cytokines? ›
Proinflammatory cytokines are produced predominantly by activated macrophages and are involved in the up-regulation of inflammatory reactions. There is abundant evidence that certain pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are involved in the process of pathological pain.Do neutrophils release pro-inflammatory cytokines? ›
It is evident that neutrophils express/produce cytokines belonging to various families, mostly including pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, immunoregulatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, and angiogenic/fibrogenic factors.What inflammatory cytokines are on neutrophils? ›
Neutrophil cytokines review.
|Cytokines Type||Expressed by Neutrophils in Vitro|
|Proinflammatory cytokines||IL-1-α, IL-1-β|
|Anti-inflammatory cytokines||IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)|
Neutrophils dominate the early stages of inflammation and set the stage for repair of tissue damage by macrophages. These actions are orchestrated by numerous cytokines and the expression of their receptors, which represent a potential means for inhibiting selective aspects of inflammation.What effect do cytokines have on neutrophils? ›
Under normal circumstances, cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 trigger the neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion, facilitating cells' migration to the inflamed site .How do you reduce proinflammatory cytokine production? ›
One of the most effective of these mechanisms is the role of physical activity in reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to strengthening the immune system. Other mechanisms that can affect adipose tissue include reducing inflammation in the tissue and finally improving hypoxia.How do you treat proinflammatory cytokines? ›
Management and Treatment
First, your healthcare provider will give you medication to reduce inflammation. This may include corticosteroids or drugs that target specific cytokines (like siltuximab, tocilizumab and anakinra). Depending on your symptoms, other treatments may be necessary.
Interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are proinflammatory cytokines, and when they are administered to humans, they produce fever, inflammation, tissue destruction, and, in some cases, shock and death.
During infection, bacterial and viral products, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), cause the release of cytokines from immune cells. These cytokines can reach the brain by several routes. Furthermore, cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), are induced in neurons within the brain by systemic injection of LPS.What cytokine attracts neutrophils to the site of infection? ›
Neutrophils are attracted to the site of infection by chemokines such as IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL2 , and can cause epithelial damage. IL-8 is the most potent neutrophil chemoattractant, which is released by the epithelial cells lining the airways .What cytokines affect neutrophils? ›
The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-16, IL-18, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), along with enzymes released from neutrophil granules (including neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, azurocidin, enolase-1, and lysozyme) , are believed to contribute to the immunopathogenesis of CSS ...What cytokines attract neutrophils? ›
Neutrophils also release immunoregulatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, which recruits macrophages, and G-CSF, which ultimately stimulates neutrophil production and aids in extended neutrophil presence, and many other factors (reference Table 1 for more factors) .What cytokine receptors are on neutrophils? ›
Important type II cytokine receptors on neutrophils are receptors for IFNα, IFNβ, IFNγ and the inhibitory IL-10 cytokine. Sharing of receptor chains between type II cytokine receptors is less common. Type I and type II cytokine receptors are involved in a number of neutrophil functions.Which cytokine is responsible for the chemotaxis of neutrophils? ›
IL8, also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor or CXCL8, is primarily produced by macrophages, but can also be released by hepatocytes and other cells.