Terbinafine hydrochloride in the treatment of tinea felis caused by experimental microsporum tinea in dogs (2023)

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The study included three groups of nine young female domestic cats each. They were between 1.5 and 4.5 months old at the start of the experiment. The cats were free of dermatophytes, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV). The research was conducted in accordance with the Guide for the use of laboratory animals. Approved by the Animal Experiments Ethics Committee of the Veterinary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia


The cat was generally fine during the 3 month treatment period. Sometimes we noticed soft stools and two cats (one from HDG and one from LDG) vomited 10 minutes after dosing. This problem was solved by feeding the cats immediately after dosing. Some slight deviations of blood parameters from normal values ​​were also noted, but these were not the cause of terbinafine (Kotnik, 2000). Three diagnostic methods used to monitor healing in cats: Wood's


Several drugs are used systemically to treat dermatophytosis: griseofulvin and azole derivatives (i.e. ketoconazole, itraconazole). Although terbinafine is not registered for use in veterinary medicine, it can be successfully used to treat microsporidiosis in cats. Based on reported data (Boothe, 2001), 10-30 mg/kg orally once daily is appropriate. In our study, HDG (30–40 mg/kg) had a shorter healing time. The first cat recovered on day 40 during diagnostic testing


Our study showed that terbinafine SID at 10-20 mg/kg was ineffective at trial terminationdog symbolInfect cats within an acceptable time frame. Treatment should be with a dose of 30-40 mg/kg SID.

Higher concentrations of terbinafine metabolites were observed in cats than in children, indicating different metabolic pathways and thus higher therapeutic doses of terbinafinedog symbolCat infection is required.

Thank you

This study was conducted with the generous support of Novartis Pharma Services Inc., Slovenia, Lek d.d. and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Slovenia. Special thanks for help. Vlasta Dragoš, MD, was in charge of the children's hair samples.

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  • Treatment Review: Terbinafine

    2012, Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine

  • Treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. Ringworm Management in Cattery

    2008, The medical and surgical practice of companion animals

    This article summarizes the latest data on the treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. Think of the benefits of mowing the lawn. The rules, benefits and limitations of topical and systemic treatments are revealed; these should be relevant to affected animals until cultures are negative and exposed animals should also be treated. The different products available are evaluated according to the clinical studies performed; the most recommended are topical enconazole and oral griseofulvin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole. The importance of environmental treatment is its role as a reservoir and can be done with bleach or enconazole diluted to 1/10. Theoretical proposals for the treatment of tinea felis and rare studies showing that eradication is possible are presented and analysed. A review of cat vaccination trials suggests that it may not be effective for the products used, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Ringworm is a skin parasitic disease whose treatment requires rigor and expertise both at the diagnostic level and in the therapeutic approach, especially when it comes to eradicating the feline population.

    This article brings together the latest knowledge on the treatment of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats. The benefits of cropping are discussed. The rules, benefits and limitations of topical and systemic treatments are described; these should be mixed in affected animals until cultures become negative and exposed animals should also be treated. The different products available were evaluated based on published studies; enconazole is recommended for topical treatment and griseofulvin, ketoconazole and itraconazole for oral administration. The importance of environmental treatment is evidenced by its role as a water reservoir and can be achieved by using diluted bleach (1:10) or enconazole. Theoretical proposals for the treatment of tinea felis and the few published studies showing that eradication is possible are presented and reviewed. Analysis of vaccination trials in cats indicates that the described product may not be effective in both prophylaxis and treatment. Ringworm is a zoonotic skin disease whose treatment requires an informed and rigorous approach to diagnosis and treatment, especially when eradication of cattery infections is required.

  • Separation and determination of terbinafine and its four impurities with similar structures by simple reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    In 2006 talent

    A novel high performance reverse phase liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of the active substance terbinafine, one impurity 1-methylaminomethylnaphthalene and three degradation products β-terbinafine. The Z-terbinafine and 4-methyl-terbinafine assays were developed and validated using propylparaben as an internal standard.

    Chromatographic separations were performed on a NUCLEOSIL 100-5-CN column and the mobile phase used to separate all compounds consisted of a mixture of THF, acetonitrile and citrate buffer pH 4.50 (10:20:70, v/v /v). Analysis time < 32 minutes with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min−1.UV detection at 226nm. The method is validated and the system suitability parameters are studied. The robustness of the method and the short-term stability of the standard solutions were verified. Detection limits for terbinafine degradation products/impurities were 0.023 to 0.098 μgml−1, the limit of quantification is 0.078 to 0.327 µgml−1The method is suitable for the routine determination of terbinafine and all its structurally similar impurities, with sufficient selectivity, precision and accuracy.

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    Quote excerpt:

    Of note, all topical treatment studies were performed in the laboratory, experimentally infected, cats or cattery using isolated infected hair [28-39]. System therapy studies are reports of treated cases or experimentally infected cats, or field studies of cattery cats [32,34,36–38,40–53]. Based on the results of these studies and our studies with shelter animals [1,2], our recommendations for the treatment of animals with dermatophytosis in animal shelters are given below.

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Is terbinafine hydrochloride safe for dogs? ›

Terbinafine (brand name Lamisil®) is a topical antifungal used occasionally to treat skin fungal infections in dogs. It is not as effective for treating fungal skin infections in cats. Terbinafine is also found in an ear solution in combination with other medications for use in dogs (e.g., Claro®).

What are the side effects of terbinafine hydrochloride in dogs? ›

Are there any potential side effects? This short acting medication is generally well-tolerated but studies in veterinary patients are limited. Gastrointestinal effects such as vomiting, lack of appetite, and diarrhea are possible. Other side effects include excessive panting and elevated liver enzymes.

What is the treatment of tinea terbinafine? ›

Terbinafine is used to treat infections caused by a fungus. It works by killing the fungus or preventing its growth. Terbinafine is applied to the skin to treat: ringworm of the body (tinea corporis);

Can I use terbinafine hydrochloride on my cat? ›

Terbinafine hydrochloride can be used to treat dermatophytosis in cats, but a higher dosage, 30-40 mg/kg SID, should be used to achieve a cure.

What is the FDA warning about terbinafine? ›

Hepatotoxicity may occur in patients with and without pre-existing liver disease. Patients prescribed Lamisil Tablets should be warned to report immediately to their physician any symptoms of persistent nausea, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, right upper abdominal pain or jaundice, dark urine or pale stools.

What are the side effects of antifungal medication for dogs? ›

Your dog may experience side effects from antifungal medications including nausea, diarrhea, and loss of appetite during treatment. Supporting your dog by ensuring they stay hydrated and have appropriate food that will not further aggravate gastrointestinal symptoms is required.

Does terbinafine have permanent side effects? ›

Long-term side effects

If you take terbinafine tablets for a long time, there's a small chance that they can affect your liver. This happens to less than 1 in 1,000 people. Your doctor may ask you to have a blood test to check that your liver is working properly.

How successful is terbinafine? ›

Forty-eight percent achieved a clinical cure compared with only 6% of the placebo group (RR 6.00, 95% CI 3.96 to 9.08; 8 studies, 1,006 people). The mycological cure rate was 59% vs 17% with placebo (RR 4.53, 95% CI 2.47 to 8.33) though there was high variability between individual studies for this outcome.

What are the worst side effects of terbinafine? ›

This medicine may cause serious liver problems, including liver failure. Check with your doctor right away if you start having nausea or vomiting, dark urine, light-colored stools, stomach pain, or yellow eyes or skin while you or your child are using this medicine.

How long does it take for terbinafine to work on tinea? ›

2 to 4 weeks if you have jock itch. 2 to 6 weeks if you have athlete's foot. 4 weeks if you have ringworm. 6 weeks to 3 months (sometimes longer) if you have a fungal nail infection.

How common is liver damage from terbinafine? ›

Clinically apparent liver injury from terbinafine occurs rarely (1 in 50,000 to 120,000 prescriptions), but many case reports and even case series have been described in the literature. Liver injury usually arises within the first 6 weeks of therapy.

What are the symptoms of terbinafine liver damage? ›

Despite its rarity, patients taking terbinafine who exhibit any of the symptoms of liver problems (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, general itching and dark urine) should urgently be referred for further assessment.

What is the difference between terbinafine and terbinafine hydrochloride? ›

Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal used to treat dermatophyte infections of toenails and fingernails as well as other fungal skin infections. Terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) is a synthetic allylamine antifungal. It is highly lipophilic in nature and tends to accumulate in skin, nails, and fatty tissues.

Is human antifungal cream safe for dogs? ›

Is antifungal cream safe for dogs? Use of a topical antifungal cream, such as miconazole cream, is safe in small portions when applying it to a single skin lesion. However, never use a topical medication without consulting your local veterinarian first.

Why was terbinafine discontinued? ›

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) posted a discontinuation notice for Lamisil (terbinafine HCl; Novartis) tablets 250mg. The Company stated the permanent discontinuation was a business decision and is not due to manufacturing, product quality, safety, or efficacy concerns.

Who Cannot use terbinafine? ›

Terbinafine is not suitable for some people. To make sure it's safe for you, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have ever had an allergic reaction to terbinafine or any other medicine. To make sure the tablets are safe for you, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you: have ever had liver or kidney problems.

Can terbinafine cause kidney damage? ›

Diagnosis: The clinical history combined with the diagnostic findings suggest acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis associated with terbinafine use.

How long does it take dog fungal skin infections to clear up? ›

Treatment of Fungal Dermatitis & Staph Infection in Dogs

Staph infections are typically treated with oral antibiotics. Antibacterial shampoo or topical ointments can be used for these types of skin conditions. Depending on the severity of the infection, treatment may take several weeks to have an effect.

How long does it take to get rid of a dog fungus? ›

Effective topical treatments are needed every 3 to 5 days for 2 to 12 weeks to eradicate the infection. If an infection is diagnosed on the ears or on just one or two isolated spots on the skin, your dog may require a topical ointment for daily use.

Can dogs recover from fungal infection? ›

Treatment typically involves infusing the affected dog's nasal passages with a liquid anti-fungal medication, although a second treatment may be necessary in some cases. Most dogs recover well following treatment.

Does fungus come back after terbinafine? ›

A 7-year prospective study of 73 onychomycosis patients who were successfully treated (mycological and clinical cure) with continuous terbinafine or intermittent itraconazole showed that recurrence occurred at a mean time of 36 months after successful treatment [8].

How long does it take for terbinafine side effects to go away? ›

Taste disturbances were typically noticed 5 to 8 weeks after starting therapy and returned to normal within several weeks after stopping the medication. The taste alteration has been rarely accompanied by a discoloration of the tongue and/or a disturbance in the sense of smell.

Can terbinafine cause heart problems? ›

A severe and sometimes deadly reaction has happened. Most of the time, this reaction has signs like fever, rash, or swollen glands with problems in body organs like the liver, kidney, blood, heart, muscles and joints, or lungs.

How can I tell if terbinafine is working? ›

You will know that the treatment is working and the infection is clearing up when you see growth of a new, healthy nail from the base of the nail bed. You can work at slowly trimming off the old, infected nail as the new one grows in.

What is a stronger antifungal than terbinafine? ›

Itraconazole has higher clinical and mycological cure rates as compared to terbinafine.

Is there a natural alternative to terbinafine? ›

Melaleuca Oil, or Tea Tree Oil is the most commonly recommended natural anti-fungal remedy.

What are the complaints of terbinafine? ›

Taste disturbances, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and headache may occur in patients taking terbinafine. Despite these untoward effects, the continuation of the medication is often dependent on the severity of symptoms and the patient's discomfort threshold.

Does terbinafine get rid of toenail fungus? ›

To treat fungal nail infections from inside the body, you can take tablets that inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. They are all prescription-only. Terbinafine and itraconazole are typically used for this purpose. Terbinafine is preferred if the nail fungus is caused by a skin fungus (dermatophyte).

What to avoid when taking terbinafine? ›

Avoid caffeine (coffee, soda, chocolate) while you are using this medicine. Terbinafine may cause caffeine to stay in your body longer than usual.
  • For onychomycosis (fungus infections of the fingernails): ...
  • For onychomycosis (fungus infections of the toenails): ...
  • For tinea corporis (ringworm of the body):

Can terbinafine cause hair loss? ›

Does Terbinafine make your hair fall out? Yes. Terbinafine is one of the antifungal drugs that is known to cause severe hair fall in a few cases. However, this side effect is very rare and may affect only 1 in 10,000 people.

How fast does terbinafine work? ›

Following oral administration, terbinafine is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed to body tissues including the poorly perfused nail matrix. Nail terbinafine concentrations are detected within 1 week after starting therapy and persist for at least 30 weeks after the completion of treatment.

Is liver damage from antifungals reversible? ›

Antifungal-induced hepatic injury is often characterized as an acute, cholestatic, or mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic response [1]. The reaction generally resolves with discontinuation of treatment, but some liver damage can be chronic.

Does terbinafine weaken your immune system? ›

You're at risk of having low white blood cells if you already have a weak immune system and are taking terbinafine for longer than 6 weeks. You might have to get blood tests done regularly while you're taking terbinafine to make sure your white blood cells are at a normal level.

When should I check liver function after starting terbinafine? ›

Any symptoms of persistent nausea, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, right upper abdominal pain or jaundice, dark urine, or pale stools must be reported. Patients with these symptoms should discontinue taking the drug, and the patient's liver function should be immediately evaluated.

What is superior than terbinafine? ›

So itraconazole is superior to terbinafine in treatment of tinea corporis and cruris.

Is terbinafine powerful? ›

Terbinafine is considered to have good potency against tinea, but incomplete cure is common with current terbinafine 250 mg/day therapy.

What is the original brand name for terbinafine? ›

Terbinafine, sold under the brand name Lamisil among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat pityriasis versicolor, fungal nail infections, and ringworm including jock itch and athlete's foot.

How long should a dog be on terbinafine? ›

It has activity against dermatophytes but has the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared with itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, or griseofulvin for both Microsporum or Trichophyton spp. The dosage is 2.5–10 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours in dogs for 56–64 days.

Is terbinafine the same for dogs and humans? ›

Terbinafine is used primarily to treat fungal infections on the skin. It is also used to treat systemic fungal infections in birds. The FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration) has approved this drug for use in humans but it is not officially approved for use in animals.

What human antifungal can be used on dogs? ›

No, you should not use human antifungal cream on dogs. Human medications may be toxic to pets, and an antifungal cream specifically formulated for dogs is more appropriate. If your dog is suffering from a fungal infection, consult a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

How effective is terbinafine hydrochloride? ›

Comparison between both groups for complete cure (clinical and mycological) at the end of 3 weeks showed 100% cure rate. In both group A and B, no clinically significant side effects such as local erythema, swelling, stinging sensation, or increased itching were noticed.

How long does terbinafine hydrochloride take to work? ›

How long does it take for Terbinafine to work? The duration and efficacy of treatment depend on the type of fungal infection. Typically, terbinafine takes 4 to 6 weeks in cases of ringworm and athlete's foot. However, nail infections take a little longer to heal – between 6 to 12 weeks.

Can terbinafine cause liver damage in dogs? ›

Terbinafine is an orally and topically active allylamine fungicidal agent which is used to treat superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails. Terbinafine has been clearly linked to rare instances of acute liver injury that can be severe and sometimes fatal.

How long do antifungals take to work in dogs? ›

Be sure to continue this medication for the entire period prescribed by your veterinarian, without skipping doses. Improvements are often not seen until a few weeks into treatment.

How much terbinafine can I give my dog for ringworm? ›

Terbinafine has activity against other types of fungi (in particular, Aspergillus species) but at this time it is mostly used against ringworm. Terbinafine is dosed 1-3 times daily depending on what fungus is being treated. Terbinafine is best given with food.

Does terbinafine work for ringworm in dogs? ›

Currently, two medications are primarily recommended to treat ringworm: Itraconazole and terbinafine.

Can humans pass fungal infections to dogs? ›

Some fungal diseases, such as ringworm, are zoonotic—meaning that the disease can spread from animals and people. Other fungal diseases, like histoplasmosis, can't spread from animals and people, but can infect both animals and humans who are exposed to fungi in the environment.

How do you get rid of fungus on a dog's skin at home? ›

White vinegar is the most effective when treating Malassezia dermatitis in dogs, while apple cider vinegar is superior for treating Candida albicans infections. A vinegar rinse is made by diluting vinegar with water in a 1:1 ratio and is applied to the skin and left to dry.

How do you get rid of fungal infection in dogs? ›

Treatment can include antibiotics, along with topical anti-fungal treatments such as shampoos, or ear ointments. Treatment of fungal dermatitis can be a long-term effort.

What happens if a dog licks antifungal cream? ›

Antifungal creams for human issues such as nail fungus, jock itch, athlete's foot and yeast infection are poorly absorbed by the digestive tract, but they may still cause vomiting and diarrhea if ingested by a pet. Diaper rash ointments are more serious if ingested by dogs.


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