Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (2023)


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Learning from experience can be very costly when it comes to wood sales, many of which only happen once or twice in a lifetime. Years of growth and value are accumulated in a reclaimed stock, and the combined annual earnings from all those years are often traded in a single transaction. When and how you sell your wood can affect how much money you make, your overall financial plans, the cost of forest regeneration and other management goals.

You have a lot at stake selling lumber without knowing the markets and the quality and quantity of your lumber. There are no daily reports of market prices for standing wood or government support prices. Demand and prices for many wood products fluctuate wildly. Size, quality and types of wood also vary greatly. Specialized knowledge is required to identify tree species and estimate volume and value within accepted standards in local markets.

This publication provides marketing and sales tips, timber terminology, examples of timber sales contracts and advice on seeking professional help from a consultant forester. With this information you can turn your next (or first) wood sale into a pleasant and profitable experience.

wood purchasing process

Proceed with the wood purchase process

Before selling your wood

Before selling your wood, you should ask yourself the following questions:

  • How is wood bought and sold?
  • Which trees should I sell and why?
  • How long should I market them?
  • Are the property and intersection boundaries well marked?
  • What is the volume of wood? (And which of the three "log rules"—Doyle, Scribner, or International—is used to estimate the base content of trees?)
  • What is the growth rate?
  • What is the market value of my wood?
  • What is the current evolution of prices in the wood market?
  • Are the trees financially mature?
  • Who and where are the right wood buyers?
  • Which sales method should I use?
  • Do I know my base?
  • How is income taxed?
  • How should I reforest harvested areas?
  • How can I get advice from a professional?

How wood is bought and sold

Procedure in the purchase of wood.A timber owner, a timber buyer, a lumberjack and a mill (manufacturer) are involved in the timber purchasing process. The raw materials that supply the manufacturer are acquired through a network of buyers who buy wood from private forest owners. Buyers can work directly for a sawmill, timber suppliers, lumberjacks or timber brokers. Buyers may receive a salary or commission, or receive a share of the profits. Timber brokers buy and resell timber and earn their income from the profits.

Timber sales methods.Timber is sold "by the piece" or "all inclusive". A unit sale is a sale where the buyer and seller negotiate a price per unit of harvested wood and the buyer pays for the wood after it has been cut and the volume determined. Wood per unit is sold by product class or at a composite average price for all products. Product classes include poles and posts, veneer or plywood, lumber, chips and saws, and pulpwood.

Landowners own wood per unit until harvest and payment received. Landowners continue to bear most of the risks associated with timber ownership, including timber destruction, damage from natural disasters, and theft. In an all-inclusive sale, the buyer and seller agree on the total price of the wood within a defined sales area, and the seller receives payment before the harvest begins. With this method, the buyer assumes the ownership risk when purchasing the standing wood.

How wood is measured

Log owners should have a basic understanding of how standing wood volume is commonly estimated. A “timber cruise” is a timber inventory inspection performed to estimate the amount of marketable or marketable timber present. On a large or high value wood stand, the cruise may include measuring all marketable trees. Typically, the drive is based on a systematic sampling of trees in representative plots or swaths of the entire stand; it is performed using statistical design to provide confidence in the estimates.

Two measurements are typically needed on any tree to determine volume: diameter at 4.5 feet above ground level (DBH or diameter at breast height) and marketable height. The height of the wood is usually given in terms of the number of "trunks" (usually 16 feet long) to a "corner point" (usually a small 8 inch diameter end on the outside of the bark). The height of the pulpwood tree can be measured as the number of "sticks" or feet of pulpwood to a standard top diameter (usually 3 inches outside the bark), or the total height of the tree can be recorded.

Tree measurements can be made using a log scale or other forestry measuring equipment (see Forest Owner Note #5,Estimating the volume of a standing tree using a (Biltmore) Stick scale). Once the diameters and heights of the trees are known, their volume can be determined using various protocol rules. A rod rule is a table or formula used to estimate volumes for different rod diameters and lengths. Protocol rules usually measure volume in plank feet.

The quality or variety of the trees is also important, especially the hardwoods; Excessive branches and crooked or defective trunks have a lower value.

At least 100 protocol rules have been jointly developed with the International over the past century.14- Customs, Doyle, and Scribner protocol rules most prevalent in the eastern and southern United States. In North Carolina, Scribner's rule is most commonly used for southern yellow pines and Doyle's rule is most commonly used for hardwoods. The legal norm for dispute settlement is the international norm, which is the most precise.

The choice of the stem ruler can significantly change the estimation of the wood volume of a stand (illustration 1). If the buyer and seller are aware of this and the price is adjusted accordingly (Table 1), any protocol rule can be applied as the total value of the wood (price multiplied by quantity) remains the same (Figure 2). For example, a 14-inch DBH tree containing two 16-foot trunks might be estimated at 130 cubic feet under Log International's rule, 115 cubic feet under Scribner's rule, but only 75 cubic feet under Doyle's rule. A price of $115 per thousand cubic feet (MBF) under international rule would result in a value of $15 for the tree. To generate the same $15 trimming value for the tree under the other two protocol rules would require an adjusted price of $130/MBF under Scribner's rule or $200/MBF under Doyle's rule.

Wood buyers are increasingly using weight and other units of measure for wood. The choice of log ruler or unit of measurement is relatively unimportant to sellers of "blanket" lumber. However, landowners selling wood “by the unit” need to understand the units applied. The seller must have the means to verify measurements and know how to accurately convert these measurements to commonly used units. Weight scaling (the process of estimating trunk volume based on weight) is less desirable because tree species, soil, growth rate, and other factors result in very different weights per unit volume. There can be a difference of up to 35% in the weight of an equivalent volume of wood between similar species, and this can significantly affect the price a seller gets for his wood.

Table 1. Price conversions between different protocol rules.
What price are you using?
Wood prices per board foot vary depending on which log rule is used to estimate wood volume. Here are the conversion factors for the various protocol rules:
Record rule conversions (dollar amounts)
Doyle to Scribner(26% difference)0.75 Doyle to Scribner
Scriber e Doyle 1.33 Scribes e Doyle
Doyle to International ¼ inch(39% difference)0.62 Doyle to International ¼ Zoll
International ¼ inch to Doyle 1.60 International ¼-Zoll an Doyle
International ¼ inch Scribner(20% difference)0.83 Scribner to International ¼ inch
International ¼-Zoll and Scribner 1.20 International ¼-Zoll an Scribner

For example:You know that pine wood sells for $300 per 1,000 board feet (Scribner log rule). What is the price of international rule of ¼ inch logs?

$300 per 1,000 ft of plank (Scribner log rule) x 0.83 = $249 per 1,000 ft of plank (International ¼ inch log rule).

Factors influencing residual wood prices

Species, tree quality and size, product type, planted area, location, site conditions, markets and contract terms all affect the price paid for standing wood.

Species.In the Southeast, most pine fetches higher prices than gum or mixed hardwoods. High quality black cherry, northern red oak, cherry bark oak, white oak and yellow poplar can command the highest prices. The price of species varies greatly with location and changing market demand.

quality and size.Large, healthy trees with pale trunks (knotted or knotless logs) that could be used for lumber, veneer or export products usually fetch the highest prices.Attention update!High sorting is the removal of the most commercially valuable trees from the stand, often leaving a residue consisting of low quality trees, poor species composition, or both. High quality stock often has little or no future economic value in terms of wood.

Product type.Key products that can be made from pine include pulpwood, sawdust, saw logs, veneer logs (also known as plylogs), and stakes or stakes. The main products derived from hardwoods include pulpwood, sawn logs and veneered logs (also known as quality or export logs). Each of these products must meet certain minimum size requirements (Table 2) and vary in value by product, tree quality and markets.

area and volume.Logging requires large capital investments in equipment. Small amounts of wood in small areas generally cannot be profitably harvested by highly mechanized and efficient contractors; therefore, relative stock values ​​generally increase with volume and area. Area and volume become less important as the quality (grade) of the tree increases.

Location.Distance to the sawmill, accessibility to good roads and ease of logging are important factors that affect the price paid for logging. Most logging contractors want all of their operations to be deforested, next to paved roads, close to factories, in well-draining soils and without contractual restrictions simply because these conditions reduce logging costs. Consequently, the price that buyers are willing to pay for extraction is lower when extraction conditions are more difficult and the distance to the mill is greater.

competitive markets.Competitive bidding from timber buyers in the area generally ensures that timber is offered at a fair market value. A buyer whose only objective is to avoid competition will often place the unsolicited bid. The number of bidders and their interest in a sale can be influenced by advertising, which contributes to competition and has a positive effect on the price paid. Some situations involving special products, unusual harvesting conditions, low quality wood or bad markets are best managed by negotiating with a single suitable buyer.

contractual provisions.Harvesting restrictions can protect the site, residual trees and landowner, but they can reduce the cost of logging. Contractual provisions that address important considerations should be included in a timber purchase contract or deed (see the Master Contract and Deed Provisions section).

First find a ranger

A North Carolina couple recently received an unsolicited offer of $20,000 for their 20 acres of mature pine wood. Realizing the complexities of selling timber, the couple hired a forestry consultant to protect their interests.

The consultant forester, working under contract for a percentage of gross revenues, held a closed tender for the sale of timber. Gross proceeds from the sale were $39,895 - $19,895 more than the original unsolicited bid. This increase in yield was significantly greater than the rate for the consultant forester.

Table 2. Minimum Size Requirements for Various Wood Products.
Do you know what products your forest contains?

≥ 6" DAP
to a top diameter of at least 3 inches


9-14" DBH
to a top diameter of at least 6 inches


≥ 14" DAP
to a top diameter of at least 8 inches

leafy trunk

≥ 16" DAP
first clear/straight stem

stacksdifferent specifications based on local markets
hard wood

≥ 6" DAP
to a top diameter of at least 3 inches


≥ 16" DAP
to a top diameter of at least 10 inches

leafy trunk

≥ 18" DAP
first clear/straight stem

wooden marketing steps

As the delivery price, cut-off cost, and shipping cost fluctuate, the cut-off price that buyers are willing to pay will also fluctuate. The way you conduct your sale has a big impact on your overall profit. Be savvy and aggressive when marketing your wood. Buyers have more confidence in sellers who take a sensible approach. Here are some suggestions:

Seek professional help.Search (Cubbage,and others., 1996) points out that professional counseling can be valuable. Landowners who received professional forestry assistance prior to timber harvesting averaged 23% more income per acre, achieved a 64% higher price per board foot, and had a projected revenue stream from future sales of 120% more as a result of improved regeneration and storage (see section titled “Consumer Guide to Forester Advice”).

Sell ​​commercially mature wood.Make sure your wood is financially mature. If the wood is not financially mature, a partial harvest (thinning) that produces the best trees may be more appropriate than clearcutting. A short-term loan with wood as collateral can be less expensive than an early or inappropriate sale of wood. The information in the appendix "Cut Your Timber, Not Your Profits!" will be helpful.

Check the market.Check current market demand for wood and the latest trends. Prices for lumber and other high-quality products vary widely. Your professional forestry consultant follows market trends and can advise you on this. Landowners can obtain this information from government agencies, universities, and companies that provide pricing information. In North Carolina, you can get general market trends and pricing information by visiting theextension forestryWeb site.

Do you have a reforestation plan?Landowners should start planning for reforestation well in advance of crop pruning. A well-planned timber sale that includes a reforestation plan will minimize regeneration costs and ensure that the desired species regenerate in the harvested area.

Clearly mark the sale limits.A legal sale of timber requires that harvest limits are clearly marked. Resurfacing the boundaries is usually the biggest expense in conducting a wood sale, but the cost can be deducted as a cost of sale. Establishing well-marked boundaries can protect the seller from further liability and litigation.

Contact a registered consultant ranger.Have a registered consultant forester inspect the wood to assess its quantity, quality and value. Consultative foresters are ready and prepared for this work. Post-harvest, these professionals can also help establish a new timber harvest that will have maximum value in the future (see section titled “Consumer Guide to Forestry Advice”).Do not rely on the timber buyer to guarantee fair market value; Your interests are not your interests.

Inform the neighbors.Notify adjacent landowners of any proposed timber sales to ensure boundaries and access road locations are acceptable. You may also find that your neighbor wants to sell his wood. Combining sales between neighboring areas can sometimes increase volume without significantly increasing extraction costs, which can result in higher prices for sellers.

have access to land.If the land on which the timber is for sale does not have adequate access, a driveway may be established pursuant to North Carolina General Statute §136.69. GS §136.69 provides entry and exit to a public road through intervening properties from other properties that have no other reasonable means of access and which are or may be used for commercial or agricultural purposes specified by law. An owner is entitled to a right of way when engaging in any activity required by law, when there is no public road or other reasonable means of reasonable access to the owner's property, and, where necessary, reasonable and only that owners have a private path.

Advertise the sale.Use an advisory forester to promote the wood to all reliable buyers in the area. High-value products or brochures can attract shoppers from up to 100 miles away. For a list of the top lumber buyers for a specific North Carolina county or for all of North Carolina, seeWood Product Buyers in North Carolina, an online publication of the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS).

Research shows that sealed bids often result in higher bids than auctions or negotiated sales. The best way to notify potential buyers is to send RFPs for timber bids (see Bids section). Include as much information about timber, area, and contractual restrictions as can be included in the RFP. Describe payment terms, including any required deposits or performance guarantees. Also include copies of area maps, plan maps or aerial photographs showing the location of the wood for sale.

Pre-harvest plans.Ask a registered ranger consultant to develop a pre-harvest plan to accommodate your interests. Pre-harvest planning is necessary to protect soil and water quality and ensure implementation of appropriate Best Management Practices (BMPs). To protect the owner, the plan must include a list and description of the BMPs to be implemented. Depending on the location and type of harvest, the plan and map should include property boundaries, sales areas, color and type of tree marker, if used, forest type, soils, slopes, time of harvest (seasonal control or climate) and approximate location of haul roads, skid tracks, potential timber landings, waterways, riverbank management zones, and proposed river crossings.

execution of the sale

Carry out the wood sale as advertised.Allow buyers at least one month to do their own research or search for wood before the sale takes place (see Invitation to Tender section). Before selling, set a minimum bid that you accept and that buyers don't meet. The consulting forester can help you determine this minimum bid. Reserve the right to decline any or all offers. The "right to refuse" protects the seller by allowing him to walk away from the sale if a minimum bid is not met or to choose a buyer with business ethics and land better suited to the seller. Small areas, low volumes, low quality wood or poor access may require negotiated wood sales.

Timber purchase contracts. Ideally, a professional forestry engineer who is familiar with legal provisions draws up the purchase agreement. The advisory ranger usually draws up the conditions of sale and the sales form, which are registered with the timber document. A good timber purchase agreement is clear, workable and enforceable for both buyer and seller. It is not so complicated that it tries to cover all eventualities. Nor is it so short as to exclude essential points of the transaction.

Wood standing or cut (chopped).Depending on whether the wood is being sold as standing wood or cut (cut) wood, certain legal and tax implications come into play. North Carolina standing wood is real estate and felled wood is personal property. By law, the transfer of an interest in property, such as standing timber, must be in writing. Deeds and contracts offer the possibility of transferring rights over timber. Wood deeds are most commonly used when paying for standing wood; Contracts are used when paying for the sorted wood.

Contracts.A contract sets out the terms to which the buyer and seller agree, as well as their rights and obligations under those terms. Timber purchase agreements or timber harvesting agreements are commonly used in transactions where timber is not sold in a fixed price sale. Payment is made periodically when the wood is delivered to a sawmill or loading point, although ownership of the trees passes to the buyer once the wood is cut.

Contracts are appropriate for parts sales such as pulpwood, chip-n-saw, selective woodcuts, piles and stakes, and other specialty product sales. However, because model contracts (see the Master Contract and Deed Provisions section) rarely contain provisions that are appropriate or desirable for specific sales, many buyers choose not to accept them.

atos. Deeds are most commonly used in all lump sum timber sales, particularly by standing timber buyers who require a deed upon payment. Most lumber buyers prefer a lumber deed prepared by their legal department. In many ways, deeds are less complicated than contracts. They contain the usual provisions (see section “Basic Contracts and Documentary Provisions”) for roads, fences, ditches, fields and boundary trees. The legal description of the property is the only additional information required. Before the deed can be entered into, it is essential that the seller's signature is notarized. While there are occasional changes that most landlords will accept, ownership of the timber passes to the buyer once a properly signed deed is provided.

Finally, sellers must exercise their logging control rights through the wording of the contract or deed, but without making the document long and complicated. These cumbersome documents can discourage wood buyers, cause them to bid lower, or be impossible to manage. Likewise, too many cutoff restrictions will increase cutoff costs, in which case the seller must be willing to accept a lower residual price. However, some important limitations include limiting cutting in wet weather and limiting the time the buyer has to remove the wood. In most cases, a period of no more than two years should be fixed.

completion of the sale.Ideally, there should be mutual trust and understanding between buyer and seller. All important documents, contracts or transfers must have notarized signatures and be registered or registered immediately after signature in the court of the county where the property is located. Timber sales are carried out as real estate transactions, often with the seller paying the deed, tax stamp and forestry consultant's commission. Often, the buyer pays for title research and paperwork required to secure the money. Before completing the sale, both parties must know who will bear the various costs of the sale. For a good relationship on which to build future sales, conduct and close the sale in a friendly and practical manner.

Invitation to submit an offer
On 30 +/- acres of woodland owned by Joe Pine, Tupelo County, NC
March 18, 2015 at 10am

wood description.Joe Pine, through his agent, Selling Timber Enterprises (hereinafter “S.T.E.”) offers for sale all timber within the Sales Territory. The wood sales area mainly supports mature loblolly pine wood with some mixture of pine and hardwood pulpwood and is reforested after harvest.

Summary of wood quantities:Volume estimates are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as implying or guaranteeing any specific quantity of timber by the owner. For information on logging cruises, contact S.T.E., (111) 222-3333.

Estimated Wood:(6” up) Scribner 78 Pine – 212 MBF /1389 tons
Pine C-N-S -II MBF /100 tons (10" up) Doyle 78 Misc Hdwd - 2 MBF /18 tons

Pine estimate for pulp (including facewood) - II tons
Hard wood - 70 tons

Retail space, property lines and boundary markings.The timber sales area is bounded by Reedy Creek forming the western boundary, the 2007 NCSR State Highway centerline forming the northern boundary, and the lines described in Charter Book 8-J page 401 forming the southern and eastern boundaries back to the creek (west edge) way). Consult the attached map for better identification. The sale has good access with average cutting conditions. The area is located 22.5 miles east of the town of Red Oak in Tupelo County, NC. Registry access is provided from NCSR 2007 onwards. Territory borders are marked with blue color. Ribeirão Management Zones (SMZ) are marked in red and no trees can be removed from within the SMZ.

type of sale. The wood will be sold by closed bid on March 18, 2015, from 10 am to 2 pm. Proposals are accepted at the S.T.E. office, 100 Ash Avenue, Red Oak, NC. Only bids made in person at the point of sale will be accepted. Seller reserves the right to refuse any bid. A 10% deposit may be required at the time of sale, at the sole discretion of the seller's representative, S.T.E. The full amount of the surcharge is due upon completion. The completion takes place within 10 days after the sale of the wood. A $1,000 performance deposit is also required at time of closing.

Sale conditions.The sale of the timberland described above is subject to, but not limited to, the following conditions: (The conditions for harvesting are specified in a separate contract and must be signed by both parties.)

1. Term timber offered under the terms of the sale must be felled and removed within 24 months of signing the timber deed.

2. Assignment of Contract. Buyer will not assign this Agreement to any third party without the consent of Seller or Seller's agent. In the event of such assignment, the buyer will not be released from these obligations under the contract of sale, unless the seller has granted such release. Buyer may subcontract the felling, felling, transport and removal of timber without Seller's written consent, but shall not be released from any obligation under the Timber Sale Agreement.

3. Notification. The seller's representative must be notified at least 24 hours before the start of extraction and 24 hours before the expected completion of the harvest.

4. Cover/Rotate/Load. All decking, skids and loading must be done within designated lumber sales areas.

5. Ditches. All trenches on site must be free of wood debris. All trenches are left in better or equal condition as before extraction.

6. Debris registration. Wood waste must not be left outside designated sales areas. Logging waste in deck areas must be distributed across sales areas so that no pile is more than 36 inches from the ground.

7. Limits and Reserved Areas. Boundary trees cannot be felled. Damage to boundary trees is assessed at a rate of two hundred dollars per tree, in addition to the Realtor's assessed value of the tree. Buyer is responsible for damage to corner markings and boundary trees. All areas within the marked boundaries can be harvested, with the exception of SMZs.

8. Trash/Fire. The timber buyer is responsible for keeping waste off site during logging, which includes maintaining a waste barrel on site. Buyer must use reasonable care to avoid wildfire as a result of Buyer's actions.

9. Damages Provision. The buyer of the timber shall indemnify and hold the seller harmless from any liability and loss, including reasonable attorneys' fees and other costs, arising out of the operations, activities or omissions of employees, contractors, subcontractors and guests, and if such liability or loss to adjacent property , purchaser's licensors or others for property damage, personal injury, death or otherwise. The buyer undertakes to maintain civil liability insurance for its agents and indirect employees.

10th title. The Seller guarantees the ownership of said wood and undertakes to defend such ownership against any and all claims. Ownership of said wood passes with ownership of by-products, such as ends, boards and sawdust, but only if the buyer removes them at the time of the purchase and sale contract for the wood. The wood buyer is not authorized to sell firewood directly to the general public in the ward.

11. Statutes. It is the buyer's responsibility to comply with all federal, state, and local laws governing logging such as logging, water quality, and river debris as they affect this property, and the buyer will be solely responsible for any violations of these regulations. . It is the buyer's responsibility to follow best management practices as per the Forestry Practices Guidelines (15A NCAC 11 .0100 - .0209).

12. Wet Weather Provision. In wet weather, the seller's representative is entitled to temporarily suspend harvesting operations if damage to the site is excessive or likely due to weather conditions. The mowing period will be extended for as long as the agent stopped harvesting.

13. Performance Warranty. Buyer is required to post a $1,000 Performance Bond with Seller's Agent at closing. The security deposit will be forfeited by the buyer to the agent in the event of default in accordance with the court agreement, subject to a final court inspection by the agent. Deposit does not limit liability for any damage incurred as determined by the agent

14. Entry and exit. Roads on the timber sales map can be used for entry and exit. Roads must be maintained in conditions comparable to those encountered prior to the start of extraction. Gate keys are provided.

15. Crossing streams. There are no crossings of streams. Ditches and streams must be kept clear of any wood debris. Buyer is responsible for seeding and mulching any creek crossings or ditches that may be encountered during extraction.

Basic provisions of the contract and document

Contract.No two logging contracts are exactly alike, but all contracts must contain basic clauses such as:

  1. Title guarantee and description of the property and boundaries.
  2. Specific description of the wood transported; Methods for determining the trees to be felled; and when, where, and how to determine volume.
  3. payment terms.
  4. Beginning and duration of the contract.
  5. Provisions covering damage to undesignated trees, fences, ditches, streams, roads, bridges, fields and buildings.
  6. Provisions to cover fire damage resulting from the negligence of the pickers and to protect the seller from liability that may arise during the course of the harvest.
  7. Clause limiting extraction in wet weather to repair site damage when heat occurs.
  8. A pattern to fully utilize the salable part of trees.
  9. Compromise Clauses for Disagreements.

Tat.A simple wooden deed might contain clauses like:

  1. Indication of the parties, seller and buyer.
  2. payment terms.
  3. Legal description of the property.
  4. Title guarantee against third-party claims.
  5. Special conditions under which forest areas must be cleared. These vary depending on the sale.
    Possible conditions are:
    1. A clause about the duration of the harvest.
    2. Map of the sales area showing the location of access roads, decks, skid tracks, etc.
    3. A clause about the state in which roads, skid tracks, decks, etc. must be left after the completion of the harvest.
    4. A clause covering damage to undesignated trees, roads, fences, bridges, streams, etc.
    5. An erosion and sediment control clause.
    6. A clause limiting extraction in wet weather to repair site damage when rutting occurs.
    7. Notification of the start of harvesting work.

Figure 1. Relationship between three log rulers in estimates of board foot volume for trees using the international 1/4 inch rule as a standard of comparison.

Figure 1. Relationship between three log rulers in estimates of board foot volume for trees using the international 1/4 inch rule as a standard of comparison.

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (2)

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Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (4)

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Figure 2. Relative value of a salable tree 14 inches DBH and 38 feet tall based on the relationship of three protocol rules.

Figure 2. Relative value of a salable tree 14 inches DBH and 38 feet tall based on the relationship of three protocol rules.

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (6)

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Is your wood financially mature?

Is your wood financially mature?

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (8)

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Contact a professional ranger for advice and help.

Contact a professional ranger for advice and help.

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (10)

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Do you have access to your country?

Do you have access to your country?

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (12)

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Do you have a pre-harvest plan to protect your interests?

Do you have a pre-harvest plan to protect your interests?

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (14)

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What are the legal and tax implications of harvesting your wood?

What are the legal and tax implications of harvesting your wood?

Timber Sales: A Planning Guide for Homeowners | Publications of the North Carolina State Extension (16)

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A consumer guide to advice from foresters

Proceed to a consumer guide to advise rangers

Seek professional advice
If you are looking for professional forestry advice, ask yourself a few questions:

  • What qualifications do you have?
  • What are your fees and what services do you offer?
  • Are you affiliated with a sawmill or wood products company?
  • Can you provide references from past clients?

To verify if a ranger is registered in North Carolina, visit theNorth Carolina State Registration Board for RangersWeb site.

What is an advisory ranger?

A consultant forest ranger is a full-time professional. For a fee, he represents his clients' interests in all matters relating to the forest. A forestry consultant can improve the quality of the forest environment and increase the production of marketable products. When trees become marketable, the consultant forester can find buyers and oversee timber sales. The amount charged by the consultant can be per hour or per day, per forest area, or it can be a contract price based on a percentage of gross revenue from the sale of forest products. The cost of these services is typically recouped by the timber owner through higher prices for properly traded timber and faster tree growth after the timber is felled and sold.

What are the qualifications?

As with all professions, the knowledge and experience of forest management consultants varies greatly. In North Carolina, registered forest rangers generally have a bachelor's degree or higher in forestry, or have demonstrated equivalent proficiency by passing an exam administered by the state registry of foresters. They must also meet continuing education requirements set by the State Forestry Registration Board. Many qualified consultants are certified members of the Association of Consulting Foresters of America, Inc. - an organization that promotes the service, practice and standards of forestry consulting and seeks to strengthen its ethical and professional standards.

A list of forest consultants can be requested from the countyCooperative Extension Centers, doNCFS, or fromAssociation of Forestry Consultants of America, Inc.. A landowner can also get names from a phone book or from a friend or neighbor who owns a forest.

How to choose a consultant?

The owner should obtain information from several consultant foresters before selecting one. Be sure to get the forester's specific qualifications, references from past clients, and fee estimates. Ask about a current job so you can see the counselor's work for yourself. To avoid a potential conflict of interest, avoid those who are buyers of forest product companies.

Once a professionally qualified consultant forester has been selected, a written contract or agreement must be signed. It should include a list of the services to be provided, who will provide them and the agreed cost of the services. The consultant must accept all questions and clarifications that the property owner may request. Good communication between owner and consultant is essential.

What services does a consultant offer?

The services of consultant foresters vary considerably depending on the rate and wishes of the owner. The following is a list of services that a property owner should expect from a fully qualified professional. The property owner should be sure that the written contract or agreement clearly defines what is expected of him.

wood sale.If a timber stand is harvested using the clearcut method, the surveyor marks the boundaries of the area. When applying the selection process, the consultant marks the limits, being able to mark or not the trees to be harvested depending on the selection process. Trees to be harvested are marked by painting the stumps and trunks to ensure that unmarked trees are not felled. Sometimes the trees to be left are marked instead of the trees to be felled. If the timber sales area boundary coincides with a property line, a property line survey by a registered surveyor may be required. The consultant will carry out an inventory of the stand and note the species, diameter, height and quality. With this information, the consultant calculates the sales volume and draws up a contract or deed for the owner's approval. The consultant can also mark where the felling trails are and where the trees will be loaded onto the log truck for limbing, cutting to length and loading.

In a closed bid sale, the forest consultant will send potential buyers an “invitation to bid on standing timber” that includes location and area maps, a legal description of the property and boundary marking, and the location of buffers or areas. excluded from the sale and description of the quantities, species, size classes and qualities of the trees. The public notice may also include dates for the forest inspection, payment schedule, dates for starting and ending the cutting work, the deposit that may be required and any other conditions of sale that protect the property and interests of the landowner.

The forester shows the forest to potential buyers and monitors the opening of the offer. Once the owner has selected the buyer, the sale is usually completed by an attorney who will have the buyer sign the deed and then collect the performance bond and all or part of the sale price. Once the sale is made, the forester takes care of the felling details. The Consultant will periodically review the registration process to ensure compliance with the terms of the Agreement.

If a negotiated sale is arranged (similar to a closed bid sale), the consultant may contact buyers personally to try to get the best price for the balance.

management plans.The management plan is based on the objectives and intentions of the property owner. The management plan information generally describes the goals and objectives, the current condition of the forest, the history of the stand, the species present and the size, volume and quality of the wood. For each forest stand, the plan should list a recommended sequence of work needed to achieve the targets established for the management period. Management plans vary in sophistication, from a brief report based on a short walk through the forest to a detailed financial analysis with computer simulations of forest growth and proposed treatments. The cost reflects the time and effort required to collect the data and create the report.

To create a management plan, the forest ranger consultant must locate the boundaries of the managed area and carry out an inventory or logging survey of the trees and forest products. Age, stocking and growth rates are estimated. This data is processed and a forest-like map is created. The ranger then develops a management plan that furthers the owner's goals.

appreciation.A lumber buyer or seller may want to know the amount or value of lumber on the property for a variety of reasons: lumber sales, financial planning, tax planning, basing or determining accidental damage. The consultant can provide this information by conducting a logging cruise and site survey. This includes measuring a representative sample of trees, creating forest type maps from aerial photographs and soil reports, and calculating timber volume and value. If a more comprehensive assessment is desired or needed, a forest owner can have a comparative market analysis carried out by a real estate valuer, or a formal valuation carried out by a licensed valuer.

edge marker.Boundary marking requires the ranger to review the deed record, locate the most recent survey, consult with adjacent landowners, and identify boundaries on the land. Boundaries are marked, marked or painted, and a map showing their direction and extent is drawn and given to the owner. The consultant can recommend a registered surveyor in case of boundary dispute, litigation, relocation of corners and lines or establishment of new lines. The consultant may not provide bona fide survey services unless licensed by the state as a registered surveyor.

Regeneration.Establishment of a new forest plant is encouraged by providing space for growth through harvesting, killing or all or partial removal of the previous harvest. Mandatory incineration and/or mechanical site preparation are sometimes necessary to provide the appropriate environmental conditions for natural or artificial regeneration.

Mandatory burning removes unwanted vegetation or wood waste prior to establishing new forest. It's an inexpensive, low-impact alternative when done right. The consultant assists the property owner in selecting a certified contractor or burner to carry out the incineration. Upon completion, the consultant will inspect the area to determine if the desired results have been achieved. Landowners interested in conducting mandatory burns on their properties should contact NCFS about the certified burners program.

Mechanical site preparation, which is generally more expensive than mandatory burning, often requires an excavator. It is used first to clear unwanted vegetation and then to cut or pile up vegetation and debris from deforestation. The consulting forester should begin this process by notifying external contractors and accepting bids for the work. The consultant can assist in selecting a contractor and will inspect the area upon completion. Once the ground is prepared, consultants or hired teams can plant seeds or seedlings.

Fire protection. The role of a fire safety advisory ranger is to help the owner reduce the risk of wildfires. Two common methods of protecting against wildfires are building and maintaining firebreaks and mandatory burning. Firelanes are barriers constructed to stop the spread of fire, or they can be created by prescribed burning to reduce fuel. The fire safety consultant's role is usually to select a contractor to carry out the work.

Improved wooden stand. Wood improvement can include any combination of forest management measures (forest maintenance) aimed at improving the vitality, health, growth and quality of trees. Removing unwanted trees that compete with cultivated trees can accelerate the growth of desired trees. Unwanted trees can be removed for firewood, killed by chemicals, felled, or girded (have a ring of bark several inches to several feet wide around the trunk of the cut tree to cause its death).

Other services.Consultants can also provide advice on wildlife and recreation management, state and federal cost-sharing programs, tax issues, estate planning and road construction.

For more information on forest management and how to choose a consultant forester, contact your local Cooperative Extension Center, NCFS, or the Association of Consulting Foresters of America, Inc.


go to summary

A landowner does not need to sell wood frequently to sell successfully, but selling wood can still be a mysterious and complex process. It is highly recommended that you contact a forestry consultant to sell your wood. Remember, a single sale may be your only chance to capitalize on the many years of annual revenue accumulated at a scrap metal shack.

No publication can cover every possible marketing situation, and it will not make you an experienced timber trader. But there are questions you should ask and answers you should know. Ask a forester for help before selling wood. Know what to sell and when. plan reforestation. Be a tough trader. In short, market your wood commercially to get the most out of it.


go to references

Some of the materials used in this publication are from the Extended Forest Forest Owner's Notes.

Bard, Robert. 2015.Do you sell your wood? Don't make uninformed decisions! AG-186. Raleigh, NC: NC Cooperative Extension.

Cubbage, F.W., B.D. New and RJ Moulton. 1996. "Evaluations of Technical Assistance Programs for Non-Industrial Private Forest Owners." Pages 367–376 inProceedings: Non-Industrial Private Forest Symposium: Learning from the Past, Perspectives for the Future.Minnesota Extension Service. St. Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota.

Gardner, William E. e William M. Stanton.Before selling your wood. WON-19. Raleigh, NC: NC Cooperative Extension.

Hamilton, Rick A. 2000.A consumer guide to advice from foresters. WON-6. Raleigh, NC: NC Cooperative Extension.

Stanton, William M. e Rick A. Hamilton.Timber Purchase Agreements. WON-10. Raleigh, NC: NC Cooperative Extension.


go to attachment

Cut your timber, not your profits!

Determine financial maturity based on percentage growth


Forest owners sell timber for a variety of reasons. Logging and other forest management decisions are generally based on economic considerations. Product changes, current market strength and market trends influence economic decisions. An important economic consideration is the rate at which a tree or stand increases in value.

Tree stands have reasonably predictable volume growth rates. After several decades of vigorous development, the growth rate slows with age. Value growth is more complex than volume growth as it is also affected by quality standards and product changes. In general, the rate of growth in value also decreases after trees grow into more valuable product classes. As its value growth falls below an "acceptable" rate, a field is considered "financially mature" and must be thinned or harvested.

To determine financial maturity, measure the market value of the tree's volume and growth. Most landowners in North Carolina get the highest values ​​for hardwood logs and veneers, products that are often measured in feet of wood. So you must cherish themboard footStanding wood content and growth.

There are two ways of looking at the growth in the value of forests: Valuegrowth per acreand valuegrowth percentage.SeTerralimited, managers sometimes seek to maximize value and growthTo install Pro Hectare.A field can be scheduled for harvest when it is no longer producing, say, 500 cubic feet (or the economic equivalent, depending on the market, say $60) per acre per year. You must balance this value per acre with other income opportunities, such as B. Crops Compare.

Moneyit is more limited than land in most investment situations. Managers therefore try to maximize returnspro dollar. To this end, the increase in the value of trees (or stock) is conveniently expressed as a percentage for comparison with possible returns through alternative investments. If the value of a booth's inventory (the capital invested in a booth) can yield more (a higher percentage) of alternative investments, then the booth is financially mature.

These two methods of assessing the suitability of wood growth can lead to very different answers. For example, a stand of 5,000 cubic feet per acre and a growth of 500 cubic feet per acre per year returns 10%. Ten years later, the same stand would have 10,000 cubic feet because the annual growth was automatically reinvested (tax free). However, the level is now only 5% (500 to 10,000), although the volume growth rate has remained constant. After converting the percentage growth in volume to growth in value, the investor would be prepared to trade this financially mature wood stock with more attractive alternatives elsewhere.

The following tables use easily obtained field measurements to estimate percentage growth in standing wood volume. Volume growth is then systematically converted to value growth to assess financial maturity.

How to estimate volume growth

Select some of the tallest and most vigorous "harvest" trees in the stand to sample. enjoy bothcurrent volumeEgrowthfor these trees.

current volumeis estimated according to the appropriate log rule after measuring 1) the diameter at breast height of the outer bark (DBH, 4.5 feet above ground line) and 2) marketable height in 16-foot log numbers. Commercial height is the point where the tip of the smallest saw log would cut and is usually determined by the location of heavy branches. The top trunk diameter at this point (commercial tip) can range from less than 50% DBH for trees with 4 trunks or more, to about 80% DBH for 1-trunk trees. Commercial tip diameters in most small to medium sized woods average about 8 inches inside the bark.

growthThe estimate also depends on height and diameter as they change over a period of time (e.g. 10 years).

Market height growth is difficult to measure, but can be roughly estimated using Table 1 in the Appendix. Height growth is mainly determined by age and site index (the quality of soil for tree growth). Appendix Table 1 assumes approximately a constant live crown of 30% for "typical" conditions.

Appendix Table 1. Ten-year marketable height growth in 16-foot logs.
Site index (feet)A
Years old)6080100
ATotal height at baseline age 50 years.

Diameter growth can be measured by extracting a growth core. Measure the last 10 annual rings (10 year radial growth) and multiply by 2.1 to convert to diameter to compensate for bark growth. An alternative for fast-growing trees is to count the number of rings in the last radial inch.

Use this size and growth information to determine the board foot growth rate as a percentage of annual compound interest (Appendix, Table 2). The tree size determines the appropriate row in the table, while the growth rate determines the correct column. An example is given below the table. Remember that no stand can grow faster than your strongest utility trees.

Appendix Table 2. Tree growth in feet of wood expressed as a percentage of annual compound interest.B
Tree growth 10-year height growth (16-foot commercial trunks)noneHalfAs
10 year DBH growth (inches out of bark)123451234512345
rings per radial inch201075420107542010754
tree size
DBHNo. 16 foot logsFlight. plank feet

A International 1/4 inch log rule, form class 78
Volume (Ano N+10)= (l+i)10
Vol (year N)

EXAMPLE: Use the columns on the left to enter the appropriate tree size (BHD and number of marketable 16-foot trunks). Use the top headers to enter the growth estimate (number of marketable 16-foot logs and 10-year DBH growth or number of rings per radial inch). A 12-inch, two-stemmed tree growing one trunk and 4 inches (or five rings per inch, radial growth) in 10 years will grow by 10.1%.

Appendix Table 3. Increase in value of trees expressed as a percentage of annual compound interest.
10 year price ratioAnnual price increase percentagePercentage annual growth in carton foot volume (from Appendix, Table 2)

How to estimate the increase in value?

The growth rates in Appendix Table 2 are based on marketable volume growth only. If stock prices are the same at the beginning and end of the growth period (10 years), the growth in value would be identical to the growth in volume. This is usually not the case. Both inflation and the increase in value of larger trees tend to cause burrow prices to rise over time. To convert volume growth to value growth, apply the price change information using Appendix Table 3.

When price increase information is expressed as a percentage, it roughly (but not exactly) corresponds to volume growth. If appropriate prices are available for the end and beginning of a 10-year growing season, a simple price ratio (end-10-year price divided by start-up price) can be used to enter Appendix Table 3. As an example, a price ratio of 1.5 (50% increase in 10 years or 4% interest compounded annually) applied to the example tree in Appendix Table 2 growing by 10% gives a value growth rate of 14 .4% a year.


Percentage growth is a method for deciding when to thin or harvest a financially mature forest. However, this is just a guide. Market fluctuations alone can offset several years of growth. And most inventories can be managed beyond strict financial maturity for many years before stagnation or potential disaster begins to force renovation or sale of wood. Therefore, percentage growth or any other determination of financial maturity must be accompanied by a comprehensive management plan and a sound marketing strategy.

Attachment created by

William E. Gardner, Extension Forest Resource Specialist (Improving Timber Stands)


How much is timber selling for in NC? ›

According to TimberMart-South, in 2022 Q2 state-wide average pine sawtimber prices in NC were about $29.5/ton, down 3.3% from last quarter and down 3.2% from the price a year ago. However, it was still over 10.5% above the south-wide average pine sawtimber prices.

What is an acre of pine trees worth? ›

How Much Money is an Acre of Timber Worth?
Pine Timber Values/Acre
*Average of all age classes excluding <15 (clearcut)
1 more row
Jul 14, 2020

How do you value standing timber? ›

The more mature trees you have, the more likely it is that your timber is ready for harvest. To estimate the value of your timber, take the volume, divided by 1,000, and multiply it by the price quoted in your states standing timber stumpage report.

How many tons of pine pulpwood per acre? ›

Average volume of natural pine clearcut: 86 tons per acre. Average volume of plantation pine clearcut: 99 tons per acre.

Are timber prices up or down 2022? ›

As of the end of November 2022, timber price increased significantly again and stood at 429.4 U.S. dollars per thousand board feet.

What trees are worth money to sell? ›

Trees used for veneer purposes are the most valuable. Walnut trees are always one of the most demanded trees in the wood industry. Oaks, maples, cherry, and ashes are also valuable trees. A high-quality veneer tree with a large diameter can be worth a lot but they are rare.

How much is an acre of timber worth 2022? ›

In addition, there are several different types of stands, each with varying characteristics. On average, an acre of timber costs $1,500 if it's from a tree plantation. If timber comes from a naturally-forested area, it can command a $500 premium, increasing the price to over $2,000.

How much is a black walnut tree worth? ›

Black walnut timber is used in the production of furniture, door panels, trim, flooring, cabinets and more. At the time of writing this article in 2022, black walnut tree value ranges from $5 to $10 per board foot… if not higher in some cases.

How many trees make a ton? ›

It takes 24 trees to make 1 ton of uncoated virgin (non-recycled) office paper. In other words, 1 tree makes 16.67 reams of paper, or 1 ream = 6% of one tree.

Which trees are highly valued for their timber? ›

Bubinga and Ebony are one of the most valuable timber trees in the world.

How do you calculate the selling price of timber? ›

To calculate the proportionate value of each timber product, divide the appraised value of the product by the total appraised valued of the property. To calculate the original cost basis of each product, multiply its proportionate value, the decimal, by the total acquisition price.

What is the most valuable tree for lumber? ›

Sequoia has attained the status of the most expensive wood in the world, costing up to €1500 per cubic metre. The tree, named in honour of the Cherokee chief Sequoyah, is an emblem of the United States. Its habitat is found almost exclusively in North America, more specifically on the coasts of California and Oregon.

What is the current price per ton of pulpwood? ›

The current US South hardwood pulpwood average delivered price is $39.36 per ton.

What is the most profitable tree to grow for lumber? ›

Some of the Most Profitable Hardwood Trees for Timber
  • Red Oak Trees & Other Oaks.
  • Black Cherry.
  • Hickory.
  • Maple.
  • Red Alder.
  • Sycamore.
  • Willow.
  • Birch.
Mar 5, 2020

What state produces the most pulpwood? ›

What State Produces the Most Lumber? According to the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Oregon is the top producer of softwood lumber, producing more than 16% of the nation's softwood. Other top-lumber producing states include: Washington.

Are lumber prices expected to drop in 2022? ›

October 2022 lumber prices are up and down.

It's been a wild couple of years with pricing on all varieties of wood products— up, down and all-around! In framing lumber, construction plywood and OSB, prices continue to drift downward through August, September, and into early October.

Will lumber prices go down in fall 2022? ›

Lumber futures dropped as much as 4% to $370.40 per thousand board feet, representing a fresh low for 2022 and its lowest level since June 2020.

Will lumber prices decrease in 2022? ›

Today's Lumber Trends and Lumber Price Forecast for 2023

Lumber prices continued to rise and fall into 2022, with the latest prices in August of 2022 finally landing around pre-pandemic levels.

What is the best way to sell timber? ›

How Do I Sell My Timber?
  1. First, you can contact your service or County Agricultural Extension or Forestry Extension agent. ...
  2. Second, you can contact a professional forestry consultant.

How much is black walnut timber worth 2022? ›

At the time of writing this article in 2022, the price of black walnut per board foot ranges from $5 to $10. In some situations, landowners are fetching even a little more than that. If you want to know the price of black walnut per tree, current averages range anywhere from $300 to $1,000.

What is a lump sum timber sale? ›

Lump-sum Sale - A lump sum sale is the outright sale of standing timber for a fixed dollar amount agreed upon in advance. The sale price is not a function of the volume cut.

Can you depreciate timber land? ›

Land is never depreciable, however, certain improvements to land such as fences, temporary roads, bridges, and buildings are depreciable. Equipment and machinery such as sawmills, trucks, tractors and power saws are also depreciable.

Is timber a capital gain sale? ›

Timber held as an investment (rather than as a business) is a capital asset. Generally, profits from the sale of investment timber can be treated as a long-term capital gain.

What is a 50 foot black walnut tree worth? ›

A mature walnut tree with a trunk diameter of 20″ will run for around $800, while a 40″ to 50″ tree would be worth up to $2000 at auction. So if you're looking for an investment opportunity or simply want to get the most bang for your buck when selling your landscaping asset, be sure to take size into account!

How many years does it take for a black walnut tree to produce walnuts? ›

This tree: Yields a ripened nut crop in early to mid-autumn. The fruit consists of three layers: a green, fleshy husk; a black inner shell that is hard, thick and corrugated; and the kernel, which is oily and sweet. Begins to bear nuts in 12–15 years.

Are hickory logs worth anything? ›

High-quality hickory logs are certainly on-par with red oak species—some instances more valuable, some instances less valuable. This of course depends upon who purchases your standing timber and the quality of your trees.

What does MBF mean in lumber? ›

As you mentioned, MBF is a forestry term for "1000 board feet". M = Roman Numeral = 1000; BF = board feet. It is common to report stumpage, FOB, and lumber prices in $/MBF or $/BF. So, $200/MBF is equal to $0.20/BF.

How many trees does it take to build a 2000 square foot house? ›

A typical 2000-square-foot apartment house consumes 26,700 board feet, according to the Idaho Forest Products Commission. A “typical” tree with a 20-inch thickness and 42 linear feet of useful wood produces about 260 board feet. So, according to the math, that house should have utilized around 102 trees.

How many dollars can one tree make? ›

One Tree Planted- one dollar=one tree.

Jane Goodall became involved in tree planting when she realized how it impacted chimpanzee populations. Last week, she commented, “Now the people have understood that saving the forest is also saving their own future.”

Which tree is known as King of timber? ›

Teak is regarded as the 'King of Timbers' due to its captivating wood quality and aesthetics. Because of its high durability, it can be used for a wide variety of indoor and outdoor purposes.

Which tree is known as queen of timber? ›

With the oak standing as undisputed king of the forest, the beech (Fagus sylvatica) is often referred to as the queen or mother of the woods.

What is the fastest growing timber tree? ›

According to greenmoney.com, the Empress tree is rated the fastest-growing hardwood tree in the world, maturing in only 10 years to produce a timber that has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any hardwood commercially grown.

How are timber sales reported on tax return? ›

So Form 1099-S shows the amount of a timber sale that can be used by the payment recipients to file their taxes and is also used by the IRS to match the amount against the recipient's tax return. It is also referred to as “information return.”

What does per ton stumpage price mean? ›

Stumpage price means the market value of standing trees (on the stump) prior to felling and removal, and is expressed in dollars per unit of volume (MBF or cords).

What is stumpage pricing? ›

Basically, a timber buyer will offer landowners a price for trees standing "on the stump." Webster's Dictionary defines stumpage as "standing timber with reference to its value," or "the value of such timber."

What trees do loggers look for? ›

Some of the most recognized hardwoods include maple, oak, ash, beech, sycamore, alder and cherry. Another important factor in product value is tree size.

Are dead trees valuable? ›

While dead trees may not be the most attractive part of a forest, they are essential to its health. As dead wood is decomposed (by fungi, bacteria and other life forms) it aids new plant growth by returning important nutrients to the ecosystem. And those seemingly dead trees are actually teeming with life!

What tree makes the best firewood? ›

The best-known firewoods are white and red oak trees. The wood from these oak trees is prized for its strength and density, and that density makes it one of the best at producing heat.

Are timber prices still going up? ›

The timber price increase in 2021 and 2022 is a result of timber and lumber prices going up. Tradespeople are seeing product availability issues, cost increases and longer lead times. Here's our top tips to make sure you're not stung by this issue.

Are log prices going up? ›

Log prices increase as demand for firewood grows

The data they gathered revealed that the price of kiln-dried logs has upscaled at a 'significantly greater rate than the overall rate of inflation which currently sits at 8.8 per cent for the 12 months up to September 2022. '

Which tree gives more returns? ›

Various types of people will give various types of advice in the market. Some people say that the more Chandan tree you will plant, the more return you will obtain.

What tree has the fastest growth rate? ›

1. Thuja Green Giant. The Thuja Green Giant is an evergreen tree that can grow in Zones 5 to 9 at a rate of 3 to 5 feet per year. After three years it can reach 15 to 20 feet and, at its mature height, it stands at 30 to 40 feet fall.

What is the most valuable tree to grow? ›

One of the most expensive types of wood in the world comes from the endangered African Blackwood tree. Found only in the driest parts of Africa, this wood is highly valued because it's often made into pricy high-end musical instruments.

Who owns the most timber in the US? ›


What state is number 1 in forestry? ›

Maine is the most forested state in the country with 88.8% of the state covered in forest. 81.9% of New Hampshire is covered with trees which makes it the second most forested state. The third most forested state is West Virginia, with 78.1% of forest coverage.

What is the biggest logging company? ›

  • Pfeifer Group. ...
  • Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget SCA. ...
  • Hampton Lumber. ...
  • Celulosa Arauco y Constitución. ...
  • Resolute Forest Products Inc (NYSE:RFP) ...
  • Georgia-Pacific LLC. Production Volume in 2021: 4,0981,000 m³ ...
  • Interfor Corporation (TSE:IFP) Production Volume in 2021: 4,6391,000 m³ ...
  • Binderholz. Production Volume in 2021: 4,8301,000 m³
Nov 25, 2022

What is a timber deed in NC? ›

A timber deed is a document that gives a timber company the right to cut the timber off of a specific piece of property. Usually they last anywhere from 1 to 3 years.

Is there a high demand for timber? ›

The World Bank forecasts that global timber demand will quadruple by 2050, driven by economic and population growth.

Is the sale of timber taxed as a capital gain? ›

Timber held as an investment (rather than as a business) is a capital asset. Generally, profits from the sale of investment timber can be treated as a long-term capital gain.


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